If the Disc Is Ours
by David Sadler
David Sadler For Congress (2002)
12th CD/Illinois

Currently disorganized. The page is simply a dump of items and links that eventually will be organized into a more cohesive presentation. Not all links and sources will be included in the final presentation. Many links are here initially as bookmarkers to allow easy access for later review to see if any part of them can be incorporated into the final presentation.


Chapter 2: On Origins and Diversification
Links to recommened books ...
Links to recommened websites ...
CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background)
WHAT IS IT? It's Behavior
JWST James Web Space Telescope
Age of the Universe
Age of the Solar System
Age of Earth

If the Disc Is Ours
by David Sadler

Chapter 2: On Origins and Diversification

The debate on the origin of the cosmos, chemicals (elements beyond hydrogen and helium), stars, planets and biology is a scientific debate. Any debate that pits a 'scientist' against a religious apologist is not a debate on origins, but instead, it is a debate about how religion is not qualified to engage in a scientific debate. I agree with this view. So why does this page include so many links to religous references? Because the debate, even from the religous side, introduces a lot of science in the form of questions and evidence. Interesting enough, science has a tough time answering these questions and dealing with this evidence if it can do so at all.

There is no unanimous conclusion by either the scientific community or the religious community on how everything originated. These disciplines argue amongst themselves just as strenuously as they argue with each other. It's clear that nobody knows how everything originated in the sense that it can be demonstrated or explained scientifically.

It's also clear that religion taints the arguments on all sides since for many evolution has become a religion and for many evolution has become a religious tenent for the radical or fundamentalist atheists who use the debate on origins to proselytize their beliefs at the same time that they attempt to deligitimize opposing religious beliefs.

I was raised as a Christian and remain a believer in Christ Jesus as deity today although I do have serious issues with organized religion, its man-made doctrines, lines of authority, interpretation of and adherence to its doctrines and rituals. But it is quite interesting to me that as I dig deeper into the science, especially the science of the last half century, that the Bible's recounting of the origin of the Universe, life and the formation and reshaping of Earth is not simply becoming more plausible, but more scientifically arguable.

I no longer attend church. Organized religion is too busy raising money and trying to remain politically correct to exhibit the spiritual principles that I am seeking. I've attended many churches, but none have addressed my questions regarding spirituality, and all do a miserable job in my opinion of preparing the young to defend themselves against the all-out assault upon their beliefs that they will be subjected to once they leave the safe confines of their home, church and community. The churches over-emphasize faith and under-emphasize proofs which are there, and which, if taught properly, would swell the church to over capacity.

I was also educated/indoctrinated as a Darwinian Evolutionist by the government educational system. There was never a conflict between God and evolution in my mind. Darwinian Evolution was all I was exposed to until AFTER I graduated from college.

Growing up, my dad subscribed to the National Geographic, Popular Science and Popular Mechanics. We watched and read the mainstream press. I went to public school. Everything I was exposed to said macroevolution is the way life first emerged from the primordial soup and then diversified into all the life that we see. In our house, we had a set of bookends. One was the Thinker. The other was Hugo Rheinhold's Philosophizing Monkey considering a human skull.

I never really questioned the evolution creation story because it was all that I was exposed to. My entire knowledge universe 'agreed' that macroevolution was an unassailable fact and that anyone and everyone who disagreed was a 'religious nut.'

The biblical creation story was not science as science must be presented, and there was no Intelligent Design body of knowledge when I was growing up that I was exposed to, so, frankly, I had no problem with evolution from a religious point of view. If God used it to create life and then used it to diversify life, that was fine with me. There was no conflict between my belief in God and macroevolution.

However, I'm not an idiot and I hate being lied to or exploited by being sold a bill of goods. I REQUIRE evidence, and here I would remind pastors to "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good." So I became very angry indeed with a whole lot of people, institutions and industries when I finally realized that macroevolution was a HUGE hoax to manipulate our minds - thoughts - beliefs - attitudes.

Just a brief review of modern popular evolutionist literature and a quick review of evolution vs creation and evolution vs intelligent design debates and presentations along with interacting with fundamentalist evolutionists in debate will clearly show that the vast majority of evolutionists are fundamentalist atheists and Darwinian/Neo Darwinian Evolution is their religion with the post-Darwinian Modern Synthesis (MS) and Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) being the most recent new/neo Darwinian denominations to split from the crumbling Darwinian church.

How old is Earth? I don't know. Did God create everything in seven days of twentry four hours each? It's possible, I suppose, but I don't know. The point is, those debates still RAGE among very intelligent and educated people today. In my opinion, we have a chance at answering the question, "How old is Earth?", but we have zero chance of answering the question about the length of God's creation days. As I said, these debates RAGE, so let's listen in. And let's adopt a fact-based, evidence-based perspective as we learn about this Big Question of origins of the universe and all that is in it. It's my direct experience that when we do, a belief in an Intelligent Creator is the obvious conclusion. After that, a quest for a better understanding of spirituality - not religion - is the natural progression of the intellectual mind. Where does my belief come from that Jesus Christ is deity if I have issues with organized religion and portions of the Bible? That's a different topic and different discussion. For now, the discussion is:
  • From where did the universe come?
  • From where did the life come?
  • From where did the humans come?
  • Was there a global flood as one part of a worldwide cataclysm?
  • Did the mountains form quickly or over millions of years? / RECENT RAPID UPLIFT OF TODAY’S MOUNTAINS (Baumgardner) / The Origin of Mountains (Ollier and Pain) / The Genesis Flood (Whitcomb and Morris)
  • Did the continents spread by plate TECTONICS or a growing/expanding Earth?
  • Where's the evidence?

    At this point, let's review some definitions ...

    The Six Meanings of Evolution / TruthInGenesis.com
  • Cosmic Evolution – The origin of time, space, and matter with the Big Bang.
  • Chemical Evolution – The origin of higher elements beyond hydrogen and helium.
  • Stellar and Planetary Evolution – The origin of the stars and planets.
  • Organic Evolution – The origin of life from non-life.
  • Macro Evolution – Changing from one kind of animal into another kind. Ex: ape to human.
  • Micro Evolution – Variation within the kinds. Ex: long-haired, short-haired, long-legged, short-legged, etc.

  • prop·a·gan·da
    "1. The systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause.
    "2. Material disseminated by the advocates or opponents of a doctrine or cause."
    -- Dictionary.com --

    "2 : the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person
    "3 : ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause; also : a public action having such an effect"
    -- Merriam-Webster's Dictionary --

    Mind Control
    "... the shaping of a person's attitudes, beliefs, and personality without the person's knowledge or consent. Mind control employs deceptive and surreptitious manipulation, usually in a group setting, for the financial or political profit of the manipulator. Mind control works by gradually exerting increasing control over individuals through a variety techniques, such as excessive repetition of routine activities, intense humiliation, or sleep deprivation."
    -- FACTnet --

    These definitions describe the propagation of macroevolution by government schools and mainstream press and mainstream 'scientific' institutions.

    More definitions ...

    The first step in waking up was simply realizing there is more than ONE SIDE to the issue! After graduating from college and having time to select which books to read, I decided to read one of those 'crazy' books saying the fossil record didn't prove evolutionist claims. I have a degree in communications. The subjects I liked best in college were persuasion and logic.

    So I was very eager to tear to shreds the logic used by these crazies who were saying the fossil record didn't prove evolution. I mean, come on! The fossil record is the 'bed rock' evidence of evolution. Right? Back in the 1960s and 1970s, the textbooks and news articles were all saying that evolution was proven by the fossil record.

    Here's the first book I read. It's online now, so you can read it for free. Luther Sunderland interviewed major leading evolutionists at the time regarding current best-evidence knowledge of the fossil record as it pertained to evolutionists' claims of observable proof for evolution.

    "Darwin's Enigma"
    By Luther Sunderland

    This one book set me on my heels. These were not religious nuts falsifying evolution through the fossil record. These were the leading evolutionists themselves! There was no religious ranting or appeals to the Bible in this book. There were only appeals to the fossil evidence and the current modern assessment of the fossil record as evidence, or lack thereof, for evolution by those most closely associated with evolution and fossils.






    My head was spinning. Could this be true? This was only one book. It was devastating because of who was saying (admitting) this about the fossil record and they were saying it without the first mention of God or the Bible after I had been taught and told that only religious nuts disputed evolution. Surely there couldn't be other scientific books falsifying evolution.

    For the next twenty years I read as much as I could on the criticism of evolution. I used the following criteria for selecting which books to read.
    The books,
    1) could not appeal to the Bible as an authority,
    2) must deal with the subject based upon observable and testable science,
    3) must be footnoted and fully referenced

    If you read Darwin's Enigma, then I recommend the books following my signature.

    If you disagree with any of their cases, you will have to take it up with them. They have convinced me by applying scientific methods to evolution and exposing the impossibility of macroevolution through mathematics, statistical probability, biology, DNA, information system theory, physical theory of thermodynamics, paleontology, geology, cosmology, logic and persuasion.

    Never, ever bring up the Bible when discussing or trying to refute this falsification of the evolution, because this isn't about religion and none of the books I recommend appeal to religion or to the Bible in their arguments that falsify the theory. They appeal exclusively to available evidence and what can be observed and tested scientifically.
    Evolutionists view themselves as the unquestionable authorities when it comes to origins and diversity of living things. They also admit that evolutionists don't know what the hell they are studying, but do it anyway because it is their 'favored account' in spite of a lack of evidence. Consider one of my favorite evolutionists, Stephen Jay Gould ...
    “Paleontologists have paid an exorbitant price for Darwin’s argument. We fancy ourselves as the only true students of life’s history, yet to preserve our favored account of evolution by natural selection we view our data as so bad that we never see the very process we profess to study.”
    Gould admits that the lack of evidence supporting evolution is a 'trade secret of paleontology.'
    “The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persists as the trade secret of paleontology. The evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nodes of their branches; the rest is inference, however reasonable, not the evidence of fossils.”
    -- Stephen Jay Gould, “Evolution’s Erratic Pace,”
    Natural History, vol. 86 (May 1977), pp. 12-16.--
    The fossil record should be the 'bed rock' evidence for evolution that proves without a trace of doubt the claimed incremental transmutation of the first life form into all life. As Gould admits, this proof does not exist in the fossil record. So evolutionists spend most of their careers making claims regarding the fossil record that simply do not exist.

    This fantacy erected around the fossil record thus becomes a foundation built upon sand for all subsequent assumptions and claims regarding macroevolution through slow mutation and natural selection. At times, for those honest with themselves, it becomes too much for some professionals who have spent their lives studying, advocating, teaching and writing about evolution.
    • "One of the reasons I started taking this anti-evolutionary view, or let's call it a non-evolutionary view, was last year I had a sudden realization for over twenty years I had thought I was working on evolution in some way. One morning I woke up and something had happened in the night, and it struck me that I had been working on this stuff for twenty years and there was not one thing I knew about it.
    “That's quite a shock to learn that one can be so misled so long. Either there was something wrong with me or there was something wrong with evolutionary theory. Naturally, I know there is nothing wrong with me, so for the last few weeks I've tried putting a simple question to various people and groups of people.
    “Question is: Can you tell me anything you know about evolution, any one thing, any one thing that is true?
    “I tried that question on the geology staff at the Field Museum of Natural History and the only answer I got was silence.
    “I tried it on the members of the Evolutionary Morphology Seminar in the University of Chicago, a very prestigious body of evolutionists, and all I got there was silence for a long time and eventually one person said, 'I do know one thing -- it ought not to be taught in high school'."
    -- Dr. Colin Patterson (Senior Palaeontologist, British Museum of Natural History, London). 5 November 1981 --
    • "In retrospect, I realize that I have wasted so much of my life arguing about things that don’t really matter ... Modern Darwinism is built on what I will be calling “The Primary Axiom”. The Primary Axiom is that man is merely the product of random mutations plus natural selection.
    "... Late in my career, I did something which for a Cornell professor would seem unthinkable. I began to question the Primary Axiom ... I gradually realized that the seemingly 'great and unassailable fortress' which has been built up around the primary axiom is really a house of cards. The Primary Axiom is actually an extremely vulnerable theory – in fact it is essentially indefensible ...
    "... To question the Primary Axiom required me to re-examine virtually everything I thought I knew about genetics ... What I eventually experienced was a complete overthrow of my previous understandings. Several years of personal struggle resulted in a new understanding, and a very strong conviction that the Primary Axiom was most definitely wrong ...
    "... If the Primary Axiom is wrong, then there is a surprising and very practical consequence. When subjected only to natural forces, the human genome must irrevocably degenerate over time.
    -- John Sanford, Cornell geneticist in his book, Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome --
  • Video: Dr. John Sanford: Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome / Dr. John Sanford, Published on Jul 27, 2012
  • Video: Mutations and Darwinism / Jerry Bergman Ph.D., Published on Jul 13, 2013


    The UFO community doesn't agree on answers to UFO questions. There's a good reason for that. Nobody really knows. So these are my conclusions and speculations based upon my research of the subject since my sighting in the eighth grade. Anyone can form their own informed opinions. All one must do is study the subject and think about it. Of course, it does help to see one or more -- expecially close up. That experience takes the 'theory' to a whole new level of reality.

    An opinion also takes on more credibility if it is consistant with other opinions held and expressed by the same person. I have endeavored to fit my theorizing of the UFO reality into the context of my understanding of the existence of God, science and human endeavors.

    Life is simply too irreducibly complex to have assembled by chance. A thought experiment I ask people to consider is to imagine a healthy person who drowns. Five minutes under water without breathing and you're dead. Why?

    People answer, "Well, you can't live without oxygen. The brain cells die, and if they are dead, you're dead."

    I ask, "But why can't we bring them back to life? All the biological parts for the complete body are there. Five minutes ago, this was a healthy individual. The body is not broken or traumatized. It was only deprived of oxygen."

    They answer, "Well, once the body is dead, you can't bring it back to life. It doesn't matter if all the parts are there. Dead is dead."

    Alright. Then how did the first dead (non-living) matter come to life? In the Evolutionists origin of life creation story, regardless of how well organized and complete ... how did this non-living matter come to life as the first living cell? If dead is dead, and you can't bring the dead back to life, and if before life on Earth there was no life, how did a primordial soup of water, mud and minerals slam-dance until a natural miracle occurs and life suddenly appeared? Without the aide of mutation and natural selection because there is no life to reproduce, these pieces somehow combine into the first non-living biological entity, awaiting only to have it's life 'turned on.' If dead is dead, how did the first non-living matter come to life?

    Silence ...

    The Evolutionists' creation story is not science. It is a dogmatic belief. It forms one of the doctrines of their church, and they all show great amounts of blind faith to believe this is how life first arose in the Universe.
    "... A large part of what keeps the Axiom standing is an almost mystical faith, which the true-believers have in the omnipotence of natural selection. Furthermore, I began to see that this deep-seated faith in natural selection was typically coupled with a degree of ideological commitment – which can only be described as religious. I started to realize ... that I might be offending a lot of people’s religion!
    -- John Sanford, Cornell geneticist in his book, Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome --
    Mutations and natural selection do not operate as a creative force in non-living matter. There is no organizing selective agent in non-living matter. There is nothing, even theoretical, to explain how non-living matter overcomes the Second Law of Thermodynamics to create the most complex, interconnected and interdependent (irreducible complexity) information system known to exist anywhere in the universe.

    TAKE NOTE, that in the linked example to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the author MUST make an exception for how life would violate the Second Law. This is how Evolutionists try to explain what can't be explained, the origin of first life. Note how the author says that LIFE behaves differently allowing complex information systems to be built thus avoiding the entropy that destroys (order to disorder) all non-living systems. Go back to the link. What does the author start with? Life! The author can not start with non-life becoming alive because entropy does not construct, it destructs.

    Evolutionists ALWAYS start with life everywhere as they begin to tell their non-provable, unobservable and non-repeatable story of how life diversified from a single cell into every living thing we see. They must start with life because non-living matter is disordered by entropy. Non-living matter in a world of entropy does not produce information systems increasing in complexity. Evolutionists avoid this like the plague, and you can see, by the link to the Second Law above, how they explain this to unwitting students who do not have the experience and knowledge base to catch this avoidance of the first and inexplicable question: How did non-living matter become alive EVEN IF it could have been assembled into a complex information system which the Second Law of Thermodynamics prohibits?

    • The Second Law of Thermodynamics says non-living systems move from order to disorder.
    • Before there was life, there was no life.
    • According to the Second Law, this non-life could not have increased in order of complexity.
    • According to Evolutionist dogma, mutations and natual selection (survival of the fittest) create complexity and diversity in living things, but for that creative force to work life must already exist.
    • Non-living matter does not reproduce biologically and certainly not in the sence of 'survival of the fittest.'
    • Since life is the most complex information system known in the universe, it's appearance violates the Second Law.


    The origin of first life is BEYOND science. It is non-observable. It can not be duplicated because life would be trying to duplicate a one time event as an intelligent creator.

    So Evolutionists can never hope to explain how life originated, but they must keep trying in order to make their creation story complete. Explaining scientifically the orgin of life is no easier for Creationists or those advocating Intelligent Design. The origin of life is beyond science.


    As difficult as it is to accept intellectually, it is my educated belief that God exists and preceded all. Just as the universe has no end, God has no beginning or end. God is Alpha/Omega. God the Creator has always been and will always be. God is infinite and beyond space and time. The Creation if finite. The finite can never totally understand the infinite, although we should try because there's a lot to learn and many problems to solve.

    God is the Creator of everything - all space, matter, energy, life. Aliens or Angels may have farmed and experimented upon human-kind. Who knows? But to argue that aliens created life on Earth and that explains away the lack of fossil evidence of Darwinian evolution is pure bunk. Evolution does not create life from non-life. That applies to aliens just as it applies to a one-celled creature.

    Since I believe God came first and created everything, I view science as the discovery of the attributes of God and the tools the Creator put into place to make things work. No subject is off limits to the objective observer/experimenter in this discovery process. No 'official truth' should stand in the face of evidence that falsifies a prior held world-view or theory -- even if it contradicts a religious doctrine of men such as the Earth is the center of the universe and even if it contradicts a 'scientific' theory or model of men such as the Big Bang and Darwinian macroevolution. Any view that persists in the presence of falsifying evidence is a dogma. It does not belong in science. It belongs in church, and in my opinion, not even there.

    The Biblical Creation story belongs in church. It can not be repeated. It can not be tested. Teaching it as fact has no place in public school and in private school only if the Evolution creation story (just as non-provable) is presented for balance.

    The Evolution creation (origin of life) story that life evolved from non-life is non-provable and belongs in church, not in public schools without the balance of the Biblical Creation story being taught. Evolution's creation story can not be repeated. It can not be tested. Any policy that allows the teaching of the Evolution creation story without allowing the balance of the teaching of the Bible Creation story, is not objective, fair, academic or scientific. It is dogma, propaganda and proselytizing.

    Macroevolution (Darwinian Evolution) advocates want us to believe that fish became amphibians and amphibians became reptiles and reptiles became dinosaurs and dinosaurs became birds. This is non-provable. It is a story that is not documented in the fossil record. It is a theory that defies what we know about biology, mutations, survivability, information theory and statistical probability. Macroevolution is dogma. It is not science, but for academic purposes, a model can be constructed upon this theory to test its predictions. Unfortunately for marcoevolution, the theory's predictions are not borne out by comparing the evidence to the model. It hasn't been proven and the fossil record does not show it.

    Microevolution, biological variation within a kind but variation that does not produce a new kind, is real. It is observable. It is repeatable. Microevolution is not disputed, even among Creationists and Intelligent Designers. Microevolution qualifies as a valid topic of scientific inquiry. Microevolution in no way supports the contentions of Evolutionists advocating life came from the primordial soup. That story is as non-provable as the Creation story that God formed Adam from dust. Microevolution in no way supports the contentions of Evolutionists advocating all life diversified via mutation and natural selection from a single cell.

    Intelligent Design is science. A model can be constructed and observations compared to the predictions of the theory to see if they fit the model. It is noteworthy that the evidence fits the Intelligent Design model more closely than it fits the Macro(Darwinian)-evolution model. This evidence spans the gamet of biology, paleontology, information systems, statistical probability, cosmology and physics.


    A world-view must hold together. It must have context among all known facts. Three of the Big Questions in life are, does God exist, how did life begin and does life exist off Earth?

    One doesn't spend much time in UFO research before encountering these questions. It doesn't take long to understand UFOs are real based upon evidence, not belief. Then the questions come. Evolutionists are ready to allow aliens to be the creators of life on Earth including humans, but they have no answer for how the aliens originated biologically except to fall back on the Evolution argument.

    UFOs appear on cave walls and in art thousands of years old. UFOs appear in ancient literature. How do evolutionists explain that? How do Creationists explain that? It sickens me that there are many believers in both camps who see no need to explain it. They ignore it, while they pay good tax dollars sending probes to Mars to discover if life ever existed or exists off Earth. All they need to do is spend one week researching the hard evidence of UFO reality and the question of life off Earth is answered. On to the next and more important questions, please.

    Links to recommened books ...

    Qualified scientific and scholarly criticism of Evolution theory, written at the college reading level in science and logic. No appeals to religion or the Bible. Just science. Can you handle it?

        • Darwin's Enigma / free on line
    by Luther Sunderland
    (LACK of fossil evidence to support evolution discussed by 5 leading pro-evolutionists)
    Luther Sunderland falsifies the Evolutionists' myth concerning the fossil record as evidence for evolution. The implication is staggering. Fossils are the 'bed rock' of the evidence for evolutionists! If fossils don't prove evolution, then the foundation for Darwinian evolutionist claims crumble to dust.
    Begin your deprogramming regarding evolution here. This is the book that began my deprogramming process after graduation from a controlled public education career. It took years to accept and to understand, but the facts are there. Do not be afraid to look through the telescope and microscope. Do not be afraid to observe reality and draw your own conclusions. For whatever reason and for whatever agenda, we have all been lied to and programmed to believe the lies from early childhood.
    Many are eager to see in UFO's a possibility that life on Earth was seeded by some extraterrestrial race of aliens, but life is so complex that it could not and can not come about by chance. The Designer that created humans also created aliens and all life including the most simple of single celled life.
    What's more, life came first! The Designer/Creator had to come first in order to design and seed life throughout the universe. This is the staggering implication that you will come to appreciate when you read this book.

        • Evolution: A Theory In Crisis
    by Michael Denton
    (MD, scientist, biological researcher gives 'an account of the growing crisis in biology and enables us to understand why an increasing number of research scientists are questioning strict Darwinism.')

        • Darwin's Black Box
    by Michael J. Behe
    (assoc. Prof. of biochemistry at Lehigh U. surveys the scientific literature looking for explanations of how evolution is supposed to create the complex biological structures we see through the microscope and finds NONE.)

        • The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism
    by Michael J. Behe
    ("For the first time in history Darwin's theory can be rigorously evaluated. The results are shocking. Although it can explain marginal changes in evolutionary history, random mutation and natural selection explain very little of the basic machinery of life. The "edge" of evolution, a line that defines the border between random and nonrandom mutation, lies very far from where Darwin pointed. Behe argues convincingly that most of the mutations that have defined the history of life on earth have been nonrandom.")

        • Darwin On Trial
    by Phillip E. Johnson
    (law professor looks at the language and argumentative tactics of evolutionists that avoid a discussion of the scientific evidence and attempt to shift the debate to religion)

        • Refuting Evolution [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
    by Johathan Sarfati
    (the easiest read and a quick summary)
    From the back cover...
    "In 1998 the National Academy of Sciences published and distributed a book to public schools and other institutions entitled 'Teaching About Evolution and the nature of Science'. This publication was designed to persuade and assist teachers to present the theory as fact and counter anti-evolutionist students with statements such as:
    1) "... no one saw the evolution of one-toed horses from three-toed horses, but that does not mean that we cannot be confident that horses evolved.",
    2) "... there is no debate within the scientific community over whether evolution occurred, and there is no evidence that evolution has not occurred.",
    3) "... scientists themselves use the word 'theory' loosely and apply it to tentative explanations that lack well-established evidences.",
    4) "... 'creation science' is the idea that scientific evidence can support a literal interpretation of Genesis ... scientists have looked at the arguments and found they are not supported by verifiable data.")

        • Origins: A Skeptic's Guide to the Creation of Life On Earth
    by Robert Shapiro
    (Professor of Chemistry at NYU. From the back cover: "To walk though its arguments is to come upon the process of science, the veil of self-deception, and the questing nature of speculation." - Science '86 -

        • Uncommon Descent Archives

        • Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome Classroom Edition
    by John Sanford, Cornell geneticist
    "Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome Classroom Edition, is a further revised version of the original 2005 paperback (Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome). This book explores the weaknesses of Darwinian theory from the perspective of someone who has been at the cutting-edge of genetic research. Suitable for public forums, Genetic Entropy, Classroom Edition presents its critique of the “Primary Axiom” apart from any alternative model or any reference to intelligent design or any aspect of theism. This book provides interested teachers and students with a strictly scientific analysis of the weaknesses of the neo-Darwinian evolutionary mechanism. This should facilitate appropriate science classroom discussions without reference to either philosophy or religion. The author is uniquely qualified to address this topic (Ph.D. in plant breeding and genetics). He has engaged in genetic research as a Cornell professor for almost three decades, holds over 30 patents, and has published over 80 scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals."

        • Genetic Entropy
    by John Sanford, Cornell geneticist
    "In retrospect, I realize that I have wasted so much of my life arguing about things that don’t really matter ... Modern Darwinism is built on what I will be calling “The Primary Axiom”. The Primary Axiom is that man is merely the product of random mutations plus natural selection. Within our society’s academia, the Primary Axiom is universally taught, and almost universally accepted. It is the constantly mouthed mantra, repeated endlessly on every college campus. It is very difficult to find any professor on any college campus who would even consider (or should I say – dare) to question the Primary Axiom ...

    "Late in my career, I did something which for a Cornell professor would seem unthinkable. I began to question the Primary Axiom. I did this with great fear and trepidation. By doing this, I knew I would be at odds with the most “sacred cow” of modern academia. Among other things, it might even result in my expulsion from the academic world ...

    ... I gradually realized that the seemingly “great and unassailable fortress” which has been built up around the primary axiom is really a house of cards. The Primary Axiom is actually an extremely vulnerable theory – in fact it is essentially indefensible

    "... A large part of what keeps the Axiom standing is an almost mystical faith, which the true-believers have in the omnipotence of natural selection. Furthermore, I began to see that this deep-seated faith in natural selection was typically coupled with a degree of ideological commitment – which can only be described as religious. I started to realize (again with trepidation) that I might be offending a lot of people’s religion!

    "To question the Primary Axiom required me to re-examine virtually everything I thought I knew about genetics. This was probably the most difficult intellectual endeavor of my life. Deeply entrenched thought pattern only change very slowly (and I must add — painfully). What I eventually experienced was a complete overthrow of my previous understandings. Several years of personal struggle resulted in a new understanding, and a very strong conviction that the Primary Axiom was most definitely wrong. More importantly, I became convinced that the Axiom could be shown to be wrong to any reasonable and open-minded individual ...

    "... every form of objective analysis I have performed has convinced me that the Axiom is clearly false. So now, regardless of the consequences, I have to say it out loud: the Emperor has no clothes!

    "... To the extent that the Primary Axiom can be shown to be false ... I have dared to write this humble little book – which some will receive as blasphemous treason, and others – revelation.

    "If the Primary Axiom is wrong, then there is a surprising and very practical consequence. When subjected only to natural forces, the human genome must irrevocably degenerate over time."

        • Giving Up Darwin: A fond farewell to a brilliant and beautiful theory
    by David Gelernter

    Links to recommened websites ...

    Evolution Intelligent Design Creation Organizations
  • BioLogos
  • Darwin Online
  • Stephen Jay Gould.org
  • Talk Origins
  • Discovery Institute
  • Evolution News & Views (EVN)
  • Intelligent Design Network
  • Intelligent Design dot org
  • Answers In Genesis
  • Creation.com
  • Creation Science / Dr. Walt Brown
  • Creation Science Evangelism
  • Genesis Apologetics - Debunk Evolution
  • Institute for Creation Research
  • Question Evolution Campaign
  • Reasons to Believe
  • Real Science Radio
  • Six Day Science / Sarah Salviander, @sarahsalviander / Debates atheists on social media
  • Truth In Genesis
  • Unmasking Evolution
  • American Scientific Affiliation (ASA) Christians in the sciences
  • The Canadian Scientific and Christian Affiliation
  • The Robert Herrmann Lectures On Faith and Science

  • Scientists who have changed from evolution to ID
  • Dean Kenyon, Biology Prof Emeritus, SFSU
  • Dr. Francis Collins, Human Genome Project
  • Dr. Jonathan Wells
  • Rick Oliver
  • Genesis Science Research / Barry Setterfield
  • Cosmic Core - Science
  • Lecture: Was Hoyle Right? / Fred Hoyle

  • Fraud Among Evolutionists
    Items of Interest
  • A Classic Polystrate Fossil
  • The Grand Experiment / Whale evolution fraud

  • Origin Debate Forums
  • Evolution Fairytale Forum
  • ForumBioDiversity
  • talk.origins
  • Thunderbolts Forum

  • Video Debates Documentaries & Presentations Podcasts
  • VIDEO: Upheaval: How Old Is the Earth and Its Species? | Space News / Dating methods
  • VIDEO: The Evolution of Life on the Electric Earth | Space News / Dating methods
  • Hugh Ross vs Kent Hovind How old is the Earth
  • Intelligent Design and the Age of the Earth - Stephen C. Meyer, PhD
  • Should Christians Divide over the Age of the Earth?
  • IGH Conference Videos
  • How Old Is the Earth? - Dr. Andrew Snelling (Conf Lecture)
  • Clair Cameron Patterson and the exact Age of the Earth
    "Clair Cameron Patterson developed the uranium–lead dating method into lead–lead dating and, by using lead isotopic data from the Canyon Diablo meteorite, he calculated an age for the Earth of 4.55 billion years ... which in 1956 resulted in 'Age of Meteorites and the Earth.'"
  • Web search: peterson caltech 1956 meteorites earth age
  • Behe & Meyer Destroy Challenge to Flagellum Motor / ID & Darwinian panels debate Behe's irreducible complexity challenge to evolution. Scientific points preside. In addition, the point of bias by the journals Science and Nature is also clearly pointed out.
  • Is Intelligent Design Testable? / William A. Dembski, 01.24.2001
  • Is Intelligent Design Falsifiable?
  • VIDEO: LEE STROBEL The Case for a Creator Full documentary
  • Intelligent Design vs. Evolution - Stephen Meyer vs. Peter Ward (rematch)
  • Is There Scientific Evidence for Intelligent Design in Nature? - Meyer/Gilder v. Shermer/Bailey
  • David Berlinski - Evolution destroyed in under 5 minutes
  • Forbidden Science - Shattering the Myths of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
  • Dr. Stephen Meyer: Darwin's Dilemma - Where did the information come from?
  • Phillip E. Johnson on Darwinism
  • The Creation Conversation - Part 2 - Michael Behe, Stephen Meyer and David Berlinski
  • Darwin's Black Box - A Debate - Michael Behe vs Keith Fox
  • What are the Limits of Darwinism? A Presentation by Dr. Michael Behe at the University of Toronto
  • Debate: Atheists vs Christians (Krauss + Shermer vs D'Souza + Hutchinson)
  • Creation / Evolution Debate on the Fossil Record - Dr. Don Patton vs John Blanton
  • Intelligent Design/Evolution Debate (1 of 8)
  • Richard Dawkins admits to Intelligent Design
  • Richard Dawkins Stumped By Creationists' Question
  • The Great Debate - What is Life?
  • Is There Design In Biology?: William Dembski vs Lewis Wolpert
  • Lennox Vs. Dawkins Debate - Has Science Buried God?
  • Dr. Craig Venter Denies Common Descent in front of Richard Dawkins!
  • Christopher Hitchens 2010 'Does atheism poison everything' vs David Berlinski
  • Devil's Delusion Author David Berlinski
  • Richard Dawkins interviews creationist John Mackay (Part 1 of 2)
  • David Berlinski—Atheism and its Scientific Pretensions / Uncommon Knowledge - HooverInstitution - Devil's Delusion
  • David Berlinski on Science, Philosophy, and Society / Uncommon Knowledge - HooverInstitution
  • Distinguished Visitor Series: David Berlinski / Kings College
  • Richard Dawkins "destroyed" in debate by "wiser" Christian professor / Dawkins vs Lennox
  • Dawkins straightened out


  • Evolution Is Impossible, Not Just Highly Unlikely, But Impossible!
    Part 1
    Part 2 Bob Enyart, Real Science Radio, Denver interviews Lawrence Krauss about Neanderthal and Jack Horner (Mary Schweitzer) about soft dino tissue.

  • VIDEO: New Experiments Show Consciousness Affects Matter ~ Dean Radin, PhD
    "Dean Radin speaks at the Science of Consciousness Conference in Tucson 2016. Dean Radin, PhD, is chief scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS)." He shows how experiments demonstrate that remote viewers can affect the double-slit experiment by

    Additional Psi papers: Selected Psi Research Publications

  • VIDEO: Lloyd Pye - Everything You Know Is Wrong / human origins
  • VIDEO: The Mysterious Origins of Man 1 / Secret Discoveries of Early Man, Charlton Heston
  • VIDEO: The Mysterious Origins of Man 2 / Ancient Alien Discoveries of Early Man
  • VIDEO: The Mysterious Origins of Man 3 Jurassic Art /


  • VIDEO: Third Eye In The Ancient Americas - Richard Cassaro, New Archaeological Find
  • VIDEO: An Advanced Civilization Existed Older Than Recorded Time, Stunning Archaeological Evidence / Richard Cassaro
  • VIDEO: Richard Cassaro Channel

  • VIDEO: part 38 "Impossible" statues, "Impossible" ancient jewellery, Moscow nuked, "Impossible" steel
  • VIDEO: Out of Place Artifacts and Objects That Do Not Belong in our Reality

  • VIDEO: Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (full movie)

    • Inside the Box
      • VIDEO: Origin of Life - How Life Started on Earth
        In this standard model, zircons are said to require water to form and that zircons formed about 4.4 billion years ago.
        10:50: The meteorites that formed Earth had about 250 minerals. Heat and pressure during Earth's formation formed new minerals. "Granite became the foundation of our continents." But it fails to say how granite formed.
        14:00 When did Earth cool enough to have liquid water?
        START 14:00


  • "Iurii Filipchenko, a Russian geneticist -, introduced the term macroevolution in 1927 because he believed that the origin of the characters associated with higher taxa (those beyond the species level) required a different process of evolution ... These evolutionary biologists shared the view that the appearance of higher taxa necessarily involved novel evolu-tionary processes, although they differed over their nature."

    - http://stephenjaygould.org/reviews/erwin_structure.pdf
  • Evolutionists are fond of saying that "... you should learn about evolution. It's not that you don't "believe" in it, it's that you don't understand it," and "macro evolution is just variation of allele frequencies at or above the level of a species (AKA speciation). Which has been observed."

    They say this in various ways. Here's another from a DIFFERENT poster. They are simply doing a copy/paste of the allele retort. "Macroevolution is variation of allele frequencies at or above the level of a species ( Evolution at or above the level of species), it does not produce it. Don't need the fossil record when we can see it today."

    And yet another and different poster says, "Microevolution is variation within a species. Macroevolution is variation between species, at or above the species level. There is no such thing as a "kind" because that word doesn't have a consistent biological definition."

    But, did the tree of life exist when the first cell is alleged to have appeared? No. Was this miraculous first replicating cell a species? Yes. If macroevolution occurs above the species level, how did the first cell differentiate & lead to the alleged tree of life?

    They will also deny that there is anything such as macroevolution. Instead they say that over time, micro changes result in macro changes. Here's how they put it.

    "Do you know why YOU make the distinction between micro and macro? It's because of the amount of time. There is no difference between them. The exact same fundamental mechanisms govern both."

  • "This blanket dismissal of evolution ignores important distinctions that divide the field into at least two broad areas: microevolution and macroevolution.

    "Microevolution looks at changes within species over time-changes that may be preludes to speciation, the origin of new species.

    "Macroevolution studies how taxonomic groups above the level of species change. Its evidence draws frequently from the fossil record and DNA comparisons to reconstruct how various organisms may be related ...

    "... The historical nature of macroevolutionary study involves inference from fossils and DNA rather than direct observation."
    -- "Scientific American, 15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense

  • A list of books on Amazon regarding Macroevolution

  • A world-famous chemist tells the truth: there’s no scientist alive today who understands macroevolution

  • What Are “Kinds” in Genesis?

  • New 'cat-fox' species discovered on European island

  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 / Talk Origins


  • Electric Comets in Action | Space News
  • Deep Impact: Confirming the Electric Comet | ThunderboltsProject
  • History of the Electric Comet | Interview Hannes Ta¨ger
  • Undeniable Evidence for Electric Comets | Thunderbolts Stuart Talbott
  • Top 10 Reasons the Universe is Electric #9: Electric Comets | Space News
  • onfirmed: Comet Dust Tail is Electrically Charged | Space News
  • Comet Jets are Electric | Space News
  • What went wrong with ESA's Rosetta-Philae mission to comet 67P Churyumov–Gerasimenko?
  • A Comet With a Coma Five Times Greater than Jupiter is Approaching the Earth
  • The Comet Venus and Its Missing Craters | Space News
  • Electric Comets in an Electric Universe | Space News
  • Electric Comets: Born From Fire | Space News
  • The Electric Comet II -- Best Evidence
  • Comets: Discovery vs. Belief | Space News
  • Electric Comets: The Most Dramatic Displays | Space News
  • Deep Impact: Mission Results: Excavating Comet Tempel 1
  • A new angle on Churyumov-Gerasimenko brings… | The Planetary Society
  • Space News Anniversary: Comet Missions | Space News
  • Dirty Snowballs Falsified - NASA Fails to Notice | Space News
  • Deep Impact: Confirming the Electric Comet
  • Identification of comet Hyakutake's extremely long ion tail from magnetic field signatures | Nature
  • Web search: comets are dirty snowballs
  • Overview | Comets – NASA Solar System Exploration
  • Oort Cloud Myth Continues to Crumble | Space News
  • Dirty Snowballs Falsified – NASA Fails to Notice | Space News
  • Comets: Discovery vs. Belief | Space News


    "Two observational pillars support contemporary cosmology: Hubble redshift and microwave background radiation."
    - Hilton ratcliffe, The Static Universe: Exploring the Myth of Cosmic Expansion, Pg 25.
    "... it seems likely that red-shifts may not be due to an expanding Universe, and much of the speculation on the structure of the Universe may require reexamination."
    - Edwin Hubble, in a paper for the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1947 (some 20 years after his discovery of redshift), See Hilton ratcliffe, The Static Universe: Exploring the Myth of Cosmic Expansion, Pg 29
    "If the authors of the Standard Model calibrate their expansion along an axis of linear redshift relationships - and they do, with great conviction - they are telling us that their Universe does not expand."
    - Hilton ratcliffe, The Static Universe: Exploring the Myth of Cosmic Expansion, Pg 30.
    See what the Big Bang (Lambda-Cold Dark Matter Model, LCDMM, L-CDM) model requires.
    - Hilton ratcliffe, The Static Universe: Exploring the Myth of Cosmic Expansion, Pg 16.


  • What's the maximum distance measurable by stellar parallax?
    "Ground-based methods were limited to a distance of about 40 pc."(1)

    The ESA's GAIA [mission] orbiting at Lagrange point L2 has a stellar parallax base radius length of 151.5 million km * 2 = diameter length 303 million km = 188,275,471 miles diameter = 2.025 AU

    "In 1989, the European Space Agency launched the Hipparcos satellite (HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite) to measure the parallax and proper motions of stars. As it orbited the Earth above the effects of the atmosphere, it was able to measure parallaxes to an order of magnitude better precision than previous methods. The resultant Hipparcos catalogue gives positions, distances and proper motions for 118,218 stars to an average accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond (mas).

    "... The distance to Hyades [open cluster] is a vital rung in what is commonly referred to as the Cosmic Distance ladder. Using Hipparcos data, astronomers have now calculated the distance to the centre of mass of the cluster to be 46.34 ± 0.27 pc.

    "... One other important finding from Hipparcos was a recalibration of the distance to another open cluster, the Pleiades. At 115 pc the new value is about 15% closer than previously thought, meaning that the cluster stars are actually dimmer than thought previously. This result has raised doubts about the standard main-sequence fitting models and suggests the need for more factors other than just metallicity to be considered. Debate still goes on among astronomers." (2)

    "The ESA's GAIA [mission] [launched 19 Dec 2013 with mission extended to Five years - extended until 31 December 2020] [is measuring] positions [of One billion stars amounts to about 1 percent of the stars populating the Milky Way] ... Gaia will observe one billion stars [to microarcsecond accuracies] about 70 times each over five years. That’s an average of 40 million observations a day! ... Of the one billion stars Gaia will observe, 99% have never had their distances measured accurately ... For objects 4000 times fainter than the naked eye limit, Gaia will measure their positions to an accuracy of 24 microarcseconds, comparable to measuring the diameter of a human hair at a distance of 1000 km. Gaia’s predecessor, Hipparcos, could have measured the diameter of a human hair at a distance of 20 km ... The nearest stars will have their distances measured to the extraordinary accuracy of 0.001%. Even stars near the Galactic Centre, some 30 000 light-years away, will have their distances measured to within an accuracy of 20%." (3)

    "Gaia is placed in an orbit around the Sun, at the second Lagrange point L2, which is named after its discoverer, Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1813). For the Sun-Earth system, the L2 point lies at a distance of 1.5 million kilometres from the Earth in the anti-Sun direction and co-rotates with the Earth in it's 1-year orbit around the Sun. [Gaia's orbit] [Where is Gaia]

    "One of the principal advantages of an L2 orbit is that it offers uninterrupted eclipse-free observations. From L2 the entire celestial sphere can be observed during the course of one year. To ensure Gaia stays at L2, the spacecraft must perform small manoeuvres every month." (4)

  • Beyond the limits of parallax, what are the other methods of determing cosmic distances?
    • Key terms
      • stellar parallax: A nearby star's apparent movement against the background of more distant stars as the Earth revolves around the Sun / Source
      • astronomical unit (AU): distance between the Earth and the Sun (approximate). 1 astronomical unit (au) = 92,955,807.27 miles (mi) / calculator
      • parsec: equal to 3.26 light-years, or nearly 31 trillion kilometres. Its name derives from measurements of parallax: it is the distance corresponding to a parallax angle of one arcsecond. (source) 206,265 AU = the distance to a star whose parallax is 1 arc second
      • MegaParsec: a unit of measure for distances in intergalactic space equal to one million parsecs / Source
      • Proper Motion: "In astronomy, the term proper motion refers to the angular velocity across the sky exhibited by a celestial body. The enormous distances to the stars means that only the closest have proper motions that are large enough to be expressed in arcseconds per year – milliarcseconds per year are more common. Because of these small angular velocities, it is necessary to use a telescope that has a high angular resolution to measure proper motions.

        "More than two epochs are required to be able to separate the proper motion of a star from its parallax, as both cause the stars to move against the “fixed background” of the night sky. With several epochs of observations it is possible to tell the difference between proper motion and parallax – a star exhibiting proper motion will move uniformly in one direction across the sky, while one displaying parallax will return to its original position after one year of observations tracing out an elliptical path on the sky. However, breaking the degeneracy between proper motion and parallax is not always simple – all stars exhibit both a proper motion, and a parallax at some level, and it can take several epochs to separate the two terms due to experimental uncertainties. It is even harder to uniquely determine these effects for objects in binary and triple systems." (Source)
      • arc minute: A measure of angular separation, - one sixtieth of a degree. / Source
      • Arc second: Another measure of angular separation, - one sixtieth of an arc minute. (1/3600th of a degree.) / Source
      • degree: A full circle has 360 degrees, while can be divided up into units of arcminutes and arcseconds such that an arcminute is 1/60 of a degree and an arcsecond is 1/60 of an arcminute. (source)

    Arp's graphic of galaxy quasar ejection

  • Halton Arp's official website

  • Origins of Quasars and Galaxy Clusters / Halton Arp's official website

  • VIDEO LECTURE: Halton Arp - Intrinsic Redshift Lecture

  • Observation of a high redshift quasar in the low redshift galaxy NGC 7319 could refute black hole theory – Starburst Forums: Subquantum Kinetics, By admin | March 14, 2011
    "In 2005 a quasar with redshift z = 2.11 was discovered near the core of active galaxy NGC 7319 which is a low redshift galaxy (z = 0.0225) in Stephen’s Quintet that is located about 360 million light years away. As noted in a UC San Diego news release, this presents a problem for standard theory which customarily places a quasar with such a large redshift at a distance of about 10 billion light years, or 30 times further away. The finding that the NGC 7319 quasar is actually a member of a low redshift galaxy, indicates that the quasar’s redshift is neither due to cosmological expansion nor to tired-light redshifting, but to some other cause. This validates Halton Arp’s theory that most of the redshift seen in quasars has a noncosmological origin."

    Quantized Redshift and Quantized Energy Shells

  • Article 90: Astronomy - Black Holes & the Proton as a Mini-Black Hole / Cosmic Core

  • Article 91: Astronomy - Black Holes as Matter Generators / Cosmic Core

  • Article 92: Astronomy - Stellar Evolution & Continuous Creation / Cosmic Core

  • Article 93: Astronomy - Redshift & the Non-expanding Universe / Cosmic Core

  • Article 94: Astronomy - Quantized Redshift & Quantized Energy Shells / Cosmic Core

  • Are Redshifts Cosmological? / AiG

    CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background)

    "The Cosmic Microwave Background is simply a diffuse image of local astrophysical structure at the equilibruim temperature of starlight."
    - Hilton ratcliffe, The Static Universe: Exploring the Myth of Cosmic Expansion, Pg 18.
    • The Herouni Antenna - The Death of the Big Bang! / Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Ph.D
      "Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Ph.D., was a professor of Radiology at The Ohio State University from 1989-2019, and also held an appointment in the Chemical Physics Program. In 1998, he led the design and assembly of the world’s first Ultra High Field MRI System. Readings from this equipment brought into question fundamental aspects of modern thermal physics, such as Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission."

      Regarding the CMB and measurements made by the Herouni dish antenna, Penzias and Wilson horn antenna, WMAP satellite, COBE satellite, Planck satellite. The conclusion is not good news for the scientific integrity of the 'CMB.'

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille series on the CMB
  • Part 1: The "Cosmic" Microwave Background - Bad Science!
  • The Big Bang & Microwave Background - The Early Years
  • The Microwave Background - COBE Satellite Results Explained!
  • The Big Bang, Photons, & The Microwave Background!
  • WMAP - The Satellite & Galactic Foreground Problems!
  • NASA's Version of Photoshop - Generating Anisotropy Maps!
  • Anisotropy Maps vs the Third Law of Thermodynamics!
  • The Planck Satellite - A $1,000,000,000 Misadventure
  • Full Sky Maps & Point Sources: Tall Tales from Planck!
  • Foreground Removal - How PLANCK Dusted the Galaxy!
  • Cosmology, Anisotropy Maps & the Loss of Reason
  • Searching for the Monopole - The Cosmic Microwave Background!
  • Planck Satellite - Analysis of the 4K Blackbodies!
  • Breaking Down the Anisotropy Maps
  • Review of the CMB Dipole: COBE, WMAP, PLANCK, and RELIKT-1
  • The CMB, Angular Power Spectrum, & Mathemagics!
  • Science, or SPACE JUNK? COBE, WMAP, Planck, and RELIKT-1 (What they did and did NOT measure!)
  • Do the CMB Anisotropy maps violate the Copernican Principle?
  • CMB Anomalies, the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect: What is Real?"
  • Kirchhoff vs Herouni's Antenna!
  • Water Structure, Hydrogen Bonds, and the Microwave Background!
  • Water & The Microwave Background: Amusing Quotes from Cosmologists!






  • The Top 30 Problems with the Big Bang Theory / Tom Van Flandern, 2002
  • Big Bang Blowup at Scientific American Cosmic Inflation is non-falsifiable (it's not science)
    "... inflation can never be shown to be wrong—it cannot be falsified—and therefore inflation isn’t even a scientific hypothesis."
  • Cosmic Inflation Theory Faces Challenges / Scientific American, February 1, 2017, accessed on May 15, 2017, Cosmic Inflation is non-falsifiable (it's not science)
  • The Inflation Debate Scientific American. 304 (4): 36-43
  • A Cosmic Controversy. Scientific American. Posted on scientificamerican.com February 2017, accessed May 15, 2017
  • A Debate Over Cosmic Inflation (and Editing at Scientific American) Gets Heated Posted on Undark.org May 9, 2017, accessed May 15, 2017


  • VIDEO: Real Science Radio on the Axis of Evil
  • VIDEO: The Principle / documentary
  • Do the CMB Anisotropy maps violate the Copernican Principle?
  • Thoughtcrime: The Conspiracy to Stop The Principle


  • Big Bang Fizzles under Lithium Test. Creation Science Update Posted on ICR.org September 22, 2014, accessed May 15, 2017
  • Does Science Support the Big Bang? Acts & Facts. 43 (7): 21


  • Fred Hoyle on big bang theory and abuse of science


  • The Big Bang Proven Wrong by Halton Arp on the Intrinsic Red Shift
    "TheTruthAlwaysAddsUp, Published on Jun 19, 2014

    "Halton Arp's observations of local galaxy's ejections of high red shifted quasars that are being ejected from the magnetic poles of their respective galaxy. These quasars lose their red shift and gain mass and luminosity is proportional to their distance from the parent galaxy.

    "To sum it all up, we are watching matter being created and we live in a universe that is suspended indefinitely in an endless universe. This fact disproves the Big Bang Gravitational model and proves that the universe is eternal with creation happening as we watch."
  • Inflationary cosmology on trial
    "Vanderbilt University, Published on Apr 4, 2011

    "Watch video of the Seyfert Lecture featuring Dr. Paul J. Steinhardt, the Albert Einstein Professor in Science and director of the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton University.

    "Steinhardt, who is also on the faculty of both the Department of Physics and the Department of Astrophysical Sciences, spoke at Vanderbilt March 17, 2011. He is the author of over 200 refereed articles, six patents, and three technical books. In 2007, co-authored Endless Universe: The Big Bang and Beyond, a popular book on contemporary theories of cosmology.

    "This talk introduces an alternative [String Theory] to the standard big bang model that challenges conventional ideas about space, time and the evolution of the universe."

    JWST James Web Space Telescope

    • Four revelations from the Webb telescope about distant galaxies | Nature | Vol 608 | 4 August 2022
      "With the resolution of James Webb, we are able to see that galaxies have disks way earlier than we thought they did," says Allison Kirkpatrick, an astronomer at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. That's a problem, she says, because it contradicts earlier theories of galaxy evolution.

      "... Hubble studies suggested that galaxies start out small and grow bigger, but the Webb findings hint that Hubble didn't have the whole picture, so galactic evolution might be more complicated than anticipated.

      "With Webb just at the beginning of a planned 20-year run, astronomers know a lot of changes lie ahead. "Right now I find myself lying awake at three in the morning," Kirkpatrick says, "wondering if everything I've ever done is wrong."
    • Walter Alter: Webb Telescope Big Bangs Experts | Thunderbolts

      Wal Thornhill JWST PREDICTION Series: published BEFORE the telescope became fully operational in July 2022.
      "Wal Thornhill, The Thunderbolts Project Chief Science Advisor, predicts the James Webb Space Telescope will support the research of Halton Arp. JWST observations may verify high redshift quasars are 'born' in pairs that emit bi-directional jets along the spin axis of a low-redshift galaxy. Plasmoid driven galactic bi-directional dense plasma focus experiments of Active Galactic Nucleus behavior may prove to be accurate."

    • EPISODE #1 - June 19, 2021 (re-released on February 11, 2023)
      Wal Thornhill: JWST & Fundamental Change
      | Thunderbolts
      "There has been no substantial change in our understanding of the universe since the middle of the 20th Century. The narrative has become complicated as barnacles of ad hoc theory are encrusted in a Titanic of institutionalized science. Fundamental changes will eventually sink the Standard Model of Cosmology.

      Wal Thornhill, The Thunderbolts Project Chief Science Advisor, predicts the James Webb Space Telescope will support the research of Halton Arp. JWST observations may verify high redshift quasars are 'born' in pairs that emit bi-directional jets along the spin axis of a low-redshift galaxy. Plasmoid driven galactic bi-directional dense plasma focus experiments of Active Galactic Nucleus behavior may prove to be accurate.

      Whenever an EU Model prediction is verified it illustrates fundamental change."

    • EPISODE #2 - September 5, 2021
      Wal Thornhill: JWST & Stellar Discovery | Thunderbolts
      "In his previous episode, Wal Thornhill, Thunderbolts Chief Science Advisor, predicted JWST discoveries that will fundamentally change the view of the big bang creation myth and the failed gravitational model of galaxies. For this second episode on the JWST, Wal describes the wide gulf between thermonuclear and electric star models and expected stellar discoveries.

      "With its vast improvement in sensitivity and resolution, the JWST will reveal the existence of the connecting network of helically twisted filamentary pairs and braids ever more clearly, and we'll discover helically twisted filament pairs and braids everywhere in we look in the cosmos."
    • EPISODE #3 - January 1, 2022
      Wal Thornhill: JWST & L-Type Brown Dwarf Stars | Thunderbolts
      "What will the JWST tell us about the origins of life, newborn planets, and subsequent formation of planetary systems? The L-Type Brown Dwarf is a class of faint star bridging the gap between stars and Jupiter-sized planets, and the most numerous stellar object in the galaxy. Life may be possible inside the glow of a brown dwarf—far more likely than on a planet orbiting outside a star—since the radiant energy arriving on a planet orbiting inside a glowing sphere is evenly distributed over its entire surface.

      "Wal Thornhill, Thunderbolts Chief Science Advisor, demonstrates why an important science goal for the infrared JWST is an examination of brown dwarfs to verify they are gas-giant sized bodies enclosed in a huge red anode glow. For perspective—if Jupiter’s present invisible plasma sheath were lit up it would appear in the sky the same size of the Sun. Brown Dwarfs are simply small Red Giants."
      The Big Bang Never Happened / Eric J. Lerner
    • The Big Bang Never Happened--The Science of the Censored Papers
      "In this presentation to the Hal5 chapter of the National Space Society, Sept. 9, 2021, Eric J. Lerner, President and Chief Scientist at LPPFusion, inc. previews for a general audience the scientific findings that have demolished the Big Bang Hypothesis in three papers that have been censored by the arXiv pre-print website. You can read the censored papers for yourself here: "Censored Papers that Refute the Big Bang Hypothesis."
      The Big Bang Never Happened Debate Series / LPPFusion

      "In this new series of LPPFusion videos, “JWST and the Big Bang Never Happened Debate”, LPPFusion Chief Scientist Eric J. Lerner replies to critics of his IAI article, including Dr. Brian Keating, Dr. Becky, Anton Petrov, Ethan Siegel and others."
    • JWST and The Big Bang Never Happened Debate 1
      "This video, Part 1: Tiny Galaxies, Smooth Disks, describes the key scientific point Lerner made in the article, which his critics have not yet replied to. This point is that the tiny image of distant galaxies that JWST obtained are incompatible with Big Bang predictions. They show that the Big Bang hypothesis flunks the Tolman test of the expanding universe hypothesis. The smooth disks add to the contradictions by demonstrating that the merger/collisions that cosmologist have long hypothesized cause tiny galaxies to grow into big ones never occurred. Lerner poses a series of questions for Dr. Keating and others to answer in this continuing debate. Small correction: the formula at 3:28 at the bottom of the slide has a typo. The right-hand side should be “1+z” rather than “z”. The redshift is correctly labeled z, but the ratio of the two distances, like the ratio of wavelengths in the first slide, is “1+z”."
    • The Big Bang Never Happened Debate 2
      "This video, Part 2: the Scientific Method and the Method of Big Bang Cosmology, contrasts the Ptolemaic methods that have led to the Big Bang with the real scientific methods that lead to the rejection of the Big Bang hypothesis."
    • The Big Bang Never Happened Debate 3
      "In this video, Part 3: Whose Conflict of Interest?, Lerner discusses the accusations that his involvement in LPPFusion's energy research and our fundraising somehow creates a conflict of interest with our cosmology research. On the contrary, Lerner argues, studying plasma in the cosmos together with plasma in the laboratory is the only way for fusion energy to work, and the only way for cosmology to progress. The real conflict of interest is that funding for academic cosmology research comes from a few committees dominated by those who have put their careers into building the Big Bang hypothesis. Funding is denied to research that openly rejects the Big Bang. This creates a climate of fear in cosmology."
    • The Big Bang Theory | Roger Penrose, Sabine Hossenfelder, Sean Carroll, Chris Impey and more / The Institute of Art and Ideas / This is Big Bang evangelists and true believers. No challengers.

    • Images from the James Webb Telescope Do Not Disprove The Big Bang Theory | Newswise, 26-Aug-2022
      "... the spectacular images from JWST may have surprised scientists in how they might change theories on galaxy formation, they by no means negate the Big Bang theory.

      "... the data from JWST suggest that galaxies form more quickly than we think, not that they necessarily contain elements from before the Big Bang or that the universe is not expanding. The observation of these well-formed galaxies at such an early time does not debunk a theory as well supported as the Big Bang.

      "... Kirkpatrick suggests that images from JWST "support the Big Bang model because they show us that early galaxies were different than the galaxies we see today - they were much smaller!"

      "... As reported by Brian Koberlein at Universe Today...

      It's a common misconception that redshift proves that galaxies are speeding away from us. They aren't. Distant galaxies aren't speeding through space. Space itself is expanding, putting greater distance between us. It's a subtle difference, but it means that galactic redshift is caused by cosmic expansion, not relative motion. It also means that distant galaxies appear a bit larger than they would in a static universe. They are distant and tiny, but the expansion of space gives the illusion of them being larger. As a result, the surface brightness of distant galaxies dims only proportional to redshift.

      "... Professor Jason Steffen, a former NASA scientist who worked on the agency's Kepler mission and an expert in astronomy/physics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, responds to the article questioning the Big Bang Hypothesis.

      In short, the evidence is still overwhelmingly in favor of a hot Big Bang as the origin of the universe. There are many pieces of evidence that come together to motivate this model. If the Big Bang were to be wrong, it would not likely be wrong for the reasons described, and it is not wrong because of any observations from JWST.

      "... There is much more uncertainty with how galaxies form and how the first stars form, which are very complicated processes that involve lots of different physical effects, than there is about the first 500,000 years, which was a relatively simple hot plasma of Hydrogen and Helium ions."
    • Do James Webb Telescope Images Disprove The Big Bang Theory? | Principia Scientific Intl., August 19, 2022, by Eric J. Lerner
      "To everyone who sees them, the new James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) images of the cosmos are beautifully awe-inspiring.

      "But to most professional astronomers and cosmologists, they are also extremely surprising-not at all what was predicted by theory.

      "In the flood of technical astronomical papers published online since July 12, the authors report again and again that the images show surprisingly many galaxies, galaxies that are surprisingly smooth, surprisingly small and surprisingly old. Lots of surprises, and not necessarily pleasant ones. One paper's title begins with the candid exclamation: "Panic!"

      "... The truth that these papers don't report is that the hypothesis that the JWST's images are blatantly and repeatedly contradicting is the Big Bang Hypothesis that the universe began 14 billion years ago in an incredibly hot, dense state and has been expanding ever since.

      "Since that hypothesis has been defended for decades as unquestionable truth by the vast majority of cosmological theorists, the new data is causing these theorists to panic. "Right now I find myself lying awake at three in the morning," says Alison Kirkpatrick, an astronomer at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, "and wondering if everything I've done is wrong."

      "... It is not too complicated to explain why these too small, too smooth, too old and too numerous galaxies are completely incompatible with the Big Bang hypothesis. Let's begin with "too small". If the universe is expanding, a strange optical illusion must exist. Galaxies (or any other objects) in expanding space do not continue to look smaller and smaller with increasing distance.

      "Beyond a certain point, they start looking larger and larger. (This is because their light is supposed to have left them when they were closer to us.) This is in sharp contrast to ordinary, non-expanding space, where objects look smaller in proportion to their distance.

      "... Big Bang theorists have known for years from the HST images that their assumptions necessitate the existence of these tiny, ultra-dense "Mighty Mouse" galaxies. JWST has made the problem far worse. The same theorists have speculated that the tiny galaxies grow up into present day galaxies by colliding with each other-merging to become more spread out.

      "... Big Bang theorists did expect to see badly mangled galaxies scrambled by many collisions or mergers. What the JWST actually showed was overwhelmingly smooth disks and neat spiral forms, just as we see in today's galaxies.

      "... The data in the "Panic!" article showed that smooth spiral galaxies were about "10 times" as numerous as what theory had predicted and that this "would challenge our ideas about mergers being a very common process". In plain language, this data utterly destroys the merger theory.

      "With few or no mergers, there is no way tiny galaxies could grow to be a hundred times bigger. Therefore, they were not tiny to begin with, and thus the optical illusion predicted from the expanding universe hypothesis does not exist. But no illusion means no expansion: the illusion is an unavoidable prediction from expansion. Thus, the panic among Big Bang supporters. Tiny and smooth galaxies mean no expansion and thus no Big Bang.

      "... According to Big Bang theory, the most distant galaxies in the JWST images are seen as they were only 400-500 million years after the origin of the universe. Yet already some of the galaxies have shown stellar populations that are over a billion years old. Since nothing could have originated before the Big Bang, the existence of these galaxies demonstrates that the Big Bang did not occur.

      "Just as there must be no galaxies older than the Big Bang, if the Big Bang hypothesis were valid, so theorists expected that as the JWST looked out further in space and back in time, there would be fewer and fewer galaxies and eventually none-a Dark Age in the cosmos.

      "But a paper to be published in Nature demonstrates that galaxies as massive as the Milky Way are common even a few hundred million years after the hypothesized Bang. The authors state that the new images show that there are at least 100,000 times as many galaxies as theorists predicted at redshifts more than 10. There is no way that so many large galaxies can be generated in so little time, so again- no Big Bang.

      "... While Big Bang theorists were shocked and panicked by these new results, Riccardo and I (and a few others) were not. In fact, a week before the JWST images were released we published online a paper that detailed accurately what the images would show. We could do this with confidence because more and more data of all kinds has been contradicting the Big Bang hypothesis for years.

      "The widely-publicized crisis in cosmology has drawn general attention to the failed predictions of the Big Bang hypothesis for the Hubble constant relating redshift to distance. But our papers, published over the past decades, have pointed to far more contradictions, each individually acknowledged by other researchers.

      "... The Big Bang prediction of the abundance of helium is off by a factor of two, the prediction for the abundance of lithium is off by a factor of 20. In addition to the absence of the larger-more-distant optical illusion, there is also the existence of large-scale structures too big to have formed in the times since the Big Bang, wrong predictions for the density of matter in the universe, and well-known asymmetries in the cosmic microwave background that should not exist according to theory.

      "There are many more contradictions. In early July I published two comprehensive papers summarizing the situation. Based on the published literature, right now the Big Bang makes 16 wrong predictions and only one right one-the abundance of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen.

      "... Over decades scientists, starting with Physics Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfven, have shown that if the Big Bang hypothesis is thrown out, the evolution of the cosmos and the phenomena that we observe today, like the cosmic microwave background, can be explained using the physical processes we observe in the laboratory-especially the electromagnetic processes of plasmas.

      "Plasma is the electrically conducting gas that makes up nearly all the matter that we see in space, in the stars and in the space between the stars. Only the Hubble redshift relation would still need some new physical process to explain the loss of energy as light travels huge distances."
    • Observations contradict galaxy size and surface brightness predictions that are based on the expanding universe hypothesis | Eric J Lerner
      "In a non-expanding universe, surface brightness is independent of distance or redshift, while in an expanding universe it decreases rapidly with both. Similarly, for objects of the same luminosity, the angular radius of an object in a non-expanding universe declines with redshift, while in an expanding universe this radius increases for redshifts z > 1.25. The author and colleagues have previously shown that data for the surface brightness of disc galaxies are compatible with a static universe with redshift linearly proportional to distance at all z [static Euclidian universe (SEU) hypothesis]. In this paper, we examine the more conventional hypothesis that the universe is expanding, but that the actual radii of galaxies of a given luminosity increase with time (decrease with z), as others have proposed. We show that the radii data for both disc and elliptical galaxies are incompatible with any of the published size-evolution predictions based on an expanding universe. We find that all the physical mechanisms proposed for size evolution, such as galaxy mergers, lead to predictions that are in quantitative contradiction with either the radius data or other data sets, such as the observed rate of galaxy mergers. In addition, we find that when the effect of telescope resolution is taken into account, the r-z relationships for disc and elliptical galaxies are identical. Both are excellently fit by SEU predictions. An overall comparison of cosmological models requires examining all available data sets, but for this data set there is a clear contradiction of predictions based on an expanding universe hypothesis."
    • Does Telescope Show the Big Bang Didn't Happen? | Evolution News
    • James Webb telescope promises a glimpse of the birth of the universe | James Webb space telescope | The Guardian Tue 12 Jul 2022
      "Astronomers are hoping future images will show 'cosmic dawn', the forming of the first galaxies 13.5bn years ago "The wait, it seems, was worth it. Decades after researchers proposed what became known as the James Webb space telescope, the first colour images have landed and with them a tantalising glimpse of the observatory's power to peer back in time to the moment when the first stars lit up the universe."
    • Webb telescope is already challenging what astronomers thought they knew | Washington Post, 8/26/2022
      "The James Webb Space Telescope ... has got astronomers scratching their heads. The very distant universe looks a little different than expected.

      "The telescope ... has been capturing images of extremely faint galaxies that emitted their light in the first billion years or so after the big bang. Observing these "early" galaxies is one of the main missions of the telescope - to see deeper into space, and further back in time, than any previous telescope.

      "The first scientific results have emerged in recent weeks, and what the telescope has seen in deepest space is a little puzzling. Some of those distant galaxies are strikingly massive. A general assumption had been that early galaxies - which formed not long after the first stars ignited - would be relatively small and misshapen. Instead, some of them are big, bright and nicely structured.

      "... The models just don't predict this," Garth Illingworth, an astronomer at the University of California at Santa Cruz, said of the massive early galaxies. "How do you do this in the universe at such an early time? How do you form so many stars so quickly?"

      "... What has surprised astronomer Dan Coe of the Space Telescope Science Institute are the number of nicely shaped, disklike galaxies.

      "We thought the early universe was this chaotic place where there's all these clumps of star formation, and things are all a-jumble," Coe said.

      "... The easiest explanation for those surprisingly massive galaxies is that, at least for some of them, there's been a miscalculation - perhaps due to a trick of light.

      "The distant galaxies are very red. They are, in astronomical lingo, "redshifted." The wavelengths of light from these objects have been stretched by the expansion of the universe. The ones that look the reddest - that have the highest redshift - are PRESUMED to be the farthest away.

      "... But dust can be throwing off the calculations. Dust can absorb blue light, and redden the object. It could be that some of these very distant, highly red-shifted galaxies are just very dusty, and not actually as far away (and as "young") as they appear. That would realign the observations with what astronomers expected."



  • Space News | The Sun -- It's too Round!
  • THE SUN IS NOT GASEOUS | Most-Critical 15min of Solar Physics
  • Special Feature: THE SAFIRE SUN
  • The SAFIRE Sun generates energy, comparable to the Sun's photosphere.
  • The SAFIRE technology [nuclear plasma reactor] was designed and built to replicate the atmosphere of the Sun in a laboratory on Earth, and to test the Electric Sun model.
  • In our tests and experiments, we have found no disparities with the Electric Sun model. In fact, all the evidence to date, indicates that electricity is the primal force in the universe.
  • The SAFIRE team has discovered the key to obtaining and sustaining high energy plasmas. SAFIRE can create, control contain, and repeat any number of plasma regimes. The hot plasma self-organizes and develops its own electromagnetic containment field.
  • SAFIRE forms its own electromagnetic containment field into a self-organizing, high-energy plasma and unlike fission reactors, SAFIRE is stable, controllable and has no environmentally dangerous or detrimental side effects. It uses hydrogen as the primary catalyst, the most abundant element in the universe.
  • Three separate analyses had been done by experts in computational fluid dynamics. All three predicted that with 100% input power, we would reach the thermal limit of the chamber, and for three years these predictions had been accurate. But with our new adjustments and using only 7% input power we very quickly reached the thermal limit. It was the elemental transmutations that were responsible for the rise in temperature over time, that was almost 14 times what was predicted.
  • SAFIRE is an international team which has been collaborating with individuals from Orion Energy, Lockheed Martin, U.S. DoD, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore Labs, Space Propulsion Consultants, the University of Toronto and many more.
  • Orion Energy will commercialize the SAFIRE technology into three key markets: 1) clean energy production, 2) heating and 3)remediation of nuclear waste. Each of these markets represents a trillion dollar industry over the next 10 years.
  • Donald E. Scott: SAFIRE and the Electric Sun | Space News
  • Home | Aureon Energy, Ltd.
  • The Parker Satellite Explained! "NASA Touches the Sun!"
  • The First Results Of Parker Solar Probe's Visits To The Sun
  • Wal Thornhill: Webb Space Telescope & Fundamental Change | Thunderbolts
  • Thunderbolts of the Gods | Official Movie
  • Michael Armstrong: Enigmatic Globular Clusters | Thunderbolts
  • Gareth Samuel: James Webb Images Question the Beginning | Thunderbolts
  • RSR's List of Problems with Solar System Formation | KGOV.com
  • Compare Multispectral Sun Images | Center for Science Education
  • Two Solar Missions: | SOHO | Parker Solar Probe
  • Solar System Missions
  • 5 Years Of Sun: Our Star's Best Close-Ups | Video
  • Greek Physics: Calculating the distance to the Sun and Moon
  • Crepuscular Rays: Discussed and Explained
    "Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218


    "The standard solar model is one of the most complete and successful theories in modern astronomy. I discuss the basic assumptions of the model: hydrostatic equilibrium, energy trans- port, thermonuclear reactions, and initial conditions. The successes and failures of the model are illustrated, followed by a brief analysis of the model data. A discussion of what can be learned from the model data is presented using composition, energy production, and convection as examples.

    "Subject headings: models: solar-thermonuclear energy: production, transport

    "1. Basic Assumptions

    "The Sun is the most prominent object in our sky, and understanding it has been one of the primary focuses since the birth of modern astronomy. Additionally, after the realization that the Sun was itself a star, solar research became a means for investigating conditions too distant to observe directly. Starting in the early twentieth century, astronomers began building a model of the Sun that would accurately predict the Sun's observable features. If the model can accurately predict what is observed, then it is reasonable to assume that it can accurately tell astronomers about what they cannot observe, both inside the Sun and its behavior at other epochs. This model is known as the standard solar model, and it has been in a state of constant evolution since its inception.

    "The standard solar model has four basic assumptions, the first being that the sun evolves in hydro-static equilibrium (3). Hydrostatic equilibrium implies a local balance between pressure and gravity ...

    "... The second assumption of the standard solar model is that energy can be transferred in the star via radiation, conduction, convection, and neutrino losses (3; 4). Radiation and convection are the dominant ...

    "... The third assumption of the model is that thermonuclear reactions are the only source of energy pro-duction inside the star (3). The thermonuclear reactions that take place in the core of a star like our Sun are processes that fuse hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei, releasing copious quantities of energy in the process. There are two processes, or chains of reactions, that are responsible for the fusion in our Sun, these are the proton-proton (pp) chain and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) chain. These chains are described in more detail below. Fusion reactions require high densities and temperatures to take place, and therefore are predominantly found in stellar cores ...

    "... The final assumption of the standard solar model is that the sun was initially of a homogeneous, pri-mordial composition, and highly convective at its main sequence turn on. Since heavy elements are neither created nor destroyed in the thermonuclear reactions in a solar-type star, they provide a record of the initial abundances, and only the relative amounts of hydrogen and helium are an indicator of stellar evolution.

    "... Until very recently, the biggest shortcoming of the standard solar model was the solar neutrino prediction. Experiments on the earth set an upper bound for the number of neutrinos that could be produced in the sun, and these numbers fell well short of the number of neutrinos predicted by the standard model. Solving this problem was the focus of solar model research over the last 30 years. The answer was recently found by (2) when they measured oscillations in the type of neutrinos emitted from the sun."
  • Web search: standard solar model neutrino prediction
  • Our Sun. I. The Standard Model: Successes and Failures - NASA/ADS / September 1990
    "Sackmann, I. -Juliana ; Boothroyd, Arnold I. ;Fowler, William A.

    "Abstract: The results of computing a number of standard solar models are reported. A presolar helium content of Y = 0.278 is obtained, and a Cl-37 capture rate of 7.7 SNUs, consistently several times the observed rate of 2.1 SNUs, is determined. Thus, the solar neutrino problem remains. The solar Z value is determined primarily by the observed Z/X ratio and is affected very little by differences in solar models. Even large changes in the low-temperature molecular opacities have no effect on Y, nor even on conditions at the base of the convective envelope. Large molecular opacities do cause a large increase in the mixing-length parameter alpha but do not cause the convective envelope to reach deeper. The temperature remains too low for lithium burning, and there is no surface lithium depletion; thus, the lithium problem of the standard solar model remains."
  • Solar neutrino puzzle is solved / July 3, 2001
    "New evidence that solar neutrinos can change “flavour” confirms that our understanding of the Sun is correct and that neutrinos have mass.

    "The first results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada have finally solved a problem that has puzzled astrophysicists for 30 years: why do experiments detect less than half the number of solar neutrinos predicted by models of the Sun? The results confirm that electron neutrinos produced by nuclear reactions inside the Sun “oscillate” or change flavour on their journey to Earth. Neutrino oscillations are only possible if the three flavours of neutrino – electron, muon and tau – have mass. The SNO result therefore has important implications for cosmology and particle physics.

    "Although the SuperKamiokande experiment in Japan has seen strong evidence for the disappearance of “atmospheric neutrinos” – neutrinos that are produced when cosmic rays interact with nuclei in the Earth’s atmosphere (Physics World July 1998 pp17-18) – the SNO results are significant because, when combined with solar-neutrino data from SuperKamiokande, they show for the first time that the disappearance of one neutrino flavour is accompanied by the appearance of another. This is the key signature of neutrino oscillations. The new results are also in excellent agreement with the predictions of standard solar models."
  • Missing Matter In The Sun's Interior / October 23, 2017
    "Further analysis and supercomputer modeling may begin to reveal what lies in the Sun's interior, but for now all that is certain is that the conventional model is not offering explanations that match observations.

    "... astronomer Martin Asplund forewent the usual 2D model of the Sun’s surface, and instead used a supercomputer to model it as 3-dimensional surface. Asplund was hoping to formulate a more accurate model for analyzing spectral and seismological data to better understand the Sun’s interior.

    Since the interior cannot be directly observed, sound and light emissions emanating from the Sun’s surface are a window into the interior. Asplund’s new model brought to light ... the seismological and spectrophotometric data indicated that the Sun had significantly less heavy elements than was previously calculated (using the defunct 2D model).

    "Because light and sound pass through heavy elements (most every element past hydrogen is referred to as a metal by astronomers) differently than light elements like hydrogen and helium, the Asplund’s updated calculations suggested a highly different chemical composition for the Sun—essentially the now absentee heavy elements account for several billion megatonnes of missing matter (the equivalent of around 1500 Earths).

    "The solution to the seeming conundrum is to posit that there is some form of matter at the center of the Sun — about 1027 kilograms of it — that does not behave like ordinary states of matter. Perhaps under the extreme temperatures and pressures of the interior region matter takes on different quantum properties, and has altered opacity or acoustic resonances."
  • An Elemental Problem with the Sun - Scientific American / July 1, 2020
    "Twenty years ago, astronomers expressed confidence in the numbers they had been working with. Now, not so much. The problem lies not in the far corners of the cosmos, but much closer to home. Astonishingly, scientists don't know exactly what the sun is made of. As a result, they don't know what the other stars are made of, either.

    "... Heavy elements such as oxygen alter the sun’s interior, because they absorb radiation as it wends its way outward from the solar core to the surface. Using the old solar abundances, astronomers thought they had the sun's interior figured out, thanks to a technique known as helioseismology. Just as our world has earthquakes, so the sun's interior vibrates with sound waves. And just as seismologists use quakes to deduce the structure of the Earth's interior, so the vibrations rippling through the sun have revealed its inner structure.

    "... "Either we don't understand the sun or the [new solar abundances] are wrong," Pinsonneault said at a 2011 talk ..."
  • How Massive Neutrinos Broke The Standard Model / Jul 14, 2020
    "According to the Standard Model of elementary particles, we should have three types of neutrino (electron, muon and tau) and three types of antineutrino, and they should be stable and unchanging in their properties once they’re created.

    "Unfortunately, the Universe had other ideas in store for us. Ever since the 1960s, when the first calculations and measurements for neutrinos produced by the Sun came in, we realized there was a problem: because of how the Sun shines, we knew how many (electron) neutrinos were produced in its core. But when we measured how many (electron) neutrinos were arriving, we only saw a third of the predicted number. The story of unlocking this mystery remains the only robust way that particle physics has gone beyond the Standard Model, and may yet hold the key to further understanding the Universe."

  • Cosmic Distance Mapping Missions: | Gaia / ESA's billion star surveyor | New Horizons |
  • NASA’s New Horizons Conducts the First Interstellar Parallax Experiment

  • Measuring Cosmic Distances:
  • Parallax
  • Stellar Parallax
  • Web search: cosmic distance ladder

    EVOLUTION OF STARS & SOLAR SYSTEMS (star formation, planetary formation)

  • Another "Impossible" Exoplanet | Space News, Nov 9, 2017
    "Recently, scientists reported in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society the discovery of a theory-shattering exoplanet -- one of countless such discoveries in the last two decades. As reported on phys.org on October 31, the hot Jupiter “should not exist according to planet formation theory.” In this episode, we outline the fundamental differences between the standard model of planet and star formation versus that of the Electric Universe."
  • Astronomers Have No Idea How Planets Form | Space News, Jul 18, 2014
    "According to a paper in the journal Nature, astronomers are now looking for a whole new theory to explain how planets form. The standard model of planet formation says that planets and stars form gravitationally in a contracting disk of gas and dust called the core accretion theory. Since astronomers believe that this model explains our solar system, they expected that exo-planet systems would play by the same rules. However, they have now observed countless baffling systems that cannot be explained by conventional reasoning. Wal Thornhill explains the Electric Universe thoughts on planetary formation."
  • New model provides different take on planetary accretion | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis, February 27, 2012
  • Solar System and Planet Formation / discussion, Thunderbolts Forum


    Credit: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
    "Scientists have obtained the first image of a black hole, using Event Horizon Telescope observations of the center of the galaxy M87. The image shows a bright ring formed as light bends in the intense gravity around a black hole that is 6.5 billion times more massive than the Sun. This long-sought image provides the strongest evidence to date for the existence of supermassive black holes and opens a new window onto the study of black holes, their event horizons, and gravity."
    Credit: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration / April 10, 2019


  • First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole / EHT Team M87 paper
    The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
    Published 2019 April 10 • © 2019. The American Astronomical Society.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 875, Number 1

    Source & full paper: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0e85

    "We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of ~40 µas, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole."
    -- from the Abstract

    "Since the discovery of the first astrophysical jet apparently connected to its nucleus (Curtis 1918), the giant elliptical galaxy M87 in the Virgo cluster has been intensively studied with imaging observations. M87's nuclear gas and stellar dynamics, as traced by optical and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, suggest the presence of a nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass MBH ~ (3.3–6.2) × 109 M? (Macchetto et al. 1997; Gebhardt & Thomas 2009; Gebhardt et al. 2011; Walsh et al. 2013). This high mass, combined with its proximity ($D=16.8\,\mathrm{Mpc};$ Blakeslee et al. 2009; Bird et al. 2010; Cantiello et al. 2018; see also EHT Collaboration et al. 2019e, hereafter Paper VI), implies that the nuclear black hole candidate in M87 (hereafter referred to as M87) has an event horizon subtending the second-largest known angular size after Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) in the Galactic Center."
    -- from the Introduction

  • Astronomers Capture First Image of a Black Hole / An international collaboration presents paradigm-shifting observations of the gargantuan black hole at the heart of distant galaxy Messier 87 / Event Horizon Telescope (ETH)
  • Black hole picture captured for first time in space breakthrough / The Guardian, Network of eight radio telescopes around the world records revolutionary image
  • Supermassive Black Hole At The Heart Of The Messier 87 Galaxy Revealed / Science20, "In a series of papers published today in a special issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters, the team has revealed four images of the supermassive black hole at the heart of Messier 87, or M87, a galaxy within the Virgo galaxy cluster, 55 million light years from Earth."
  • Web search: Messier 87 galaxy black hole event horizon telescope
  • Video: First Image of a Black Hole!/ Veritasium
  • Video: Zooming in to the Heart of Messier 87 / European Southern Observatory (ESO)
  • Video: See M87's Black Hole Plasma Jet in 13-Year Hubble Time-Lapse / Credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)

    Hubble Space Telescope Image of M87 here

  • Wal Thornhill: Black Hole or Plasmoid? | Space News
    Published on Apr 16, 2019
    "In this interview recorded on April 8, 2019, physicist Wal Thornhill discusses why the recent so-called "first picture of a black hole" actually affirms the plasma cosmology hypothesis that the object at a galactic core is not a black hole at all but an ultra-high density energy storage phenomena called a Plasmoid."
  • Wal Thornhill: On the Black Hole's Non-existence | Space News

  • So if not a black hole, then what? / Thunderbolts forum
  • Re: So if not a black hole, then what?
    by D_Archer » Wed Apr 10, 2019 6:30 pm

    If anything we are looking at a plasmoid.
    They said in the press release it was easier to observer than Sag A, this is because we look at Sag A from the side, we can look at M87 down the barrel.
    Regards, Daniel
  • Re: So if not a black hole, then what?
    by Brigit Bara » Thu Apr 11, 2019 10:34 am
    "Stephen Smith notes that the Black Hole theory did not predict or explain the coherent jets emitted along the axis of some galaxies:

    "Cygnus A is one of the first radio sources that revealed “jets and lobes” accelerating out of its nucleus. They are thought to result from material falling into a central black hole, where it is torn apart. Subatomic “debris” is then propelled out of the galactic core by some means not understood in consensus circles. It is suggested that spinning magnetic fields surround black holes, but the theory cannot be tested.

    "Among the many difficulties faced by mainstream astrophysicists is how magnetic fields can align and compress particle emissions into jets that maintain coherency. Radio jets from some galaxies reach out for over one million light years before they “disperse” into vast clouds of radio emitting particles, larger than their galactic sources. "What is at the center of electric galaxies? "An important factor missing in their observations is that the magnetic fields mentioned in the press release are electromagnetic and not simply magnetic. The only way to generate a magnetic field is with the flow of electric charge, or electricity. As written in previous Pictures of the Day, radio-bright celestial objects are not created in gravity fields, no matter how powerful. Laboratory experiments most easily produce them by accelerating charged particles through an electric field. Rather than gravity, an electromagnetic entity called a “plasmoid” is responsible for jets, lobes and other objects in space."
  • Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Ph.D: twitter.com/SkyScholarVideo
    Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Ph.D., was a professor of Radiology at The Ohio State University from 1989-2019, and also held an appointment in the Chemical Physics Program. In 1998, he led the design and assembly of the world’s first Ultra High Field MRI System. Readings from this equipment brought into question fundamental aspects of modern thermal physics, such as Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission.


    "This image, taken by the Very Large Array of ground-based telescopes at radio wavelengths, shows a bright source at the centre of the Milky Way that was thought to surround a black hole. From their observations of a star in orbit around the Galactic Centre, Schödel et al.1 conclude that there is indeed a supermassive black hole in this region. The structure known as the Galactic Centre Radio Arc (upper left) is believed to be generated by hot plasma flowing along lines of magnetic field."
    -- NATURE, Figure 1: Journey to the centre of the Galaxy. From: Into the heart of darkness

  • Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes by S. W. Hawking
  • Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes (full abstract) by S. W. Hawking
  • Stephen Hawking: 'There are no black holes'
    Notion of an 'event horizon', from which nothing can escape, is incompatible with quantum theory, physicist claims.
  • Hawking Still in the Dark on Black Holes | Space News, Stephen Crothers
  • Stephen Hawking's Final Theory About Our Universe Has Just Been Published, And It Will Melt Your Brain


  • The Beginning of Time by S. W. Hawking
    "At this time, the Big Bang, all the matter in the universe, would have been on top of itself. The density would have been infinite. It would have been what is called, a singularity."

    Infinite density implies infinite curvature of space, meaning that no space existed outside of the singularity. What did the Big Bang singularity expand into if there was no space outside of it?
  • Pauli exclusion principle / web search: Pauli exclusion principle
    "The Pauli exclusion principle states no two electrons (or other fermions) can have the identical quantum mechanical state in the same atom or molecule. In other words, no pair of electrons in an atom can have the same electronic quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms."
    -- Pauli Exclusion Principle Definition

    This is another way of saying that there is an upper limit to the compression of matter and argues against singularities.

    Age of the Universe

    Age of the Solar System

    Age of Earth

  • VIDEO: Our Created Solar System: What You Aren't Being Told / Engineer Spike Psarris
  • VIDEO: Young Earth Evidence
  • Geological column / Creation Wiki
  • Geologic column / Answers In Genesis
  • Geologic column / Detecting Design
  • Geologic column / Was Darwin Right?
  • Geologic column / No Answers In Genesis
  • Geologic column / Talk Origins: How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
  • Coal, volcanism and Noah’s Flood (origin and rapid formation of coal) - CMI
    Experiments show that with conditions mimicking natural forces, coal forms quickly; in weeks for brown coal to months for black coal. It does not need millions of years. Furthermore, long time periods could be an impediment to coal formation because of the increased likelihood of the permineralization of the wood, which would hinder coalification. ... Thus their overall conclusion was that coal macerals can be produced rapidly from biological source material by a clay-catalyzed thermal reaction in periods of only two to four months (sometimes one month).
  • Young Earth vs Old Earth: Who’s Actually Right? – Christian Defenders
  • Age of the earth: 101 evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe - CMI
  • Jesus Devastates an Old Earth | Answers in Genesis
    "But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female." (Mark 10:6)

    "And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female," (Matthew 19:4)
  • WEBSEARCH: Radioactive Polonium Halos /
  • Polonium Halos: Unrefuted Evidence for Earth's Instant Creation! / Halos.com
  • "Polonium Haloes" Refuted / Talk Origins
  • RATE group reveals exciting breakthroughs!
    RATE (Radioactivity and the Age of The Earth) research group.

    "The samples were sent (without any hint that it was a creationist project) to a world-class expert to measure these rates. The consistent answer: the helium does indeed seep out quickly over a wide range of temperatures. In fact, the results show that because of all the helium still in the zircons, these crystals (and since this is Precambrian basement granite, by implication the whole earth) could not be older than between 4,000 and 14,000 years. In other words, in only a few thousand years, 1.5 billion years’ worth (at today’s rates) of radioactive decay has taken place. Interestingly, the data have since been refined and updated to give a date of 5680 (+/- 2000) years."

    1 Humphreys, D. et al., Helium diffusion rates support accelerated nuclear decay, www.icr.org/pdf/research/Helium_ICC_7-22-03.pdf.

    The diamond’s carbon-dated ‘age’ of <58,000 years is thus an upper limit for the age of the whole earth. And this age is brought down still further now that the helium diffusion results have so strongly affirmed dramatic past acceleration of radioactive decay.5

    The bottom line is that virtually all biological specimens, no matter how ‘old’ they are supposed to be, show measurable C-14 levels.3 This effectively limits the age of all buried biota to less than (at most) 250,000 years. (When one takes into account the likely much lower ratio of radioactive to ‘normal’ carbon pre-Flood4, it brings it right down to within the biblical ‘ballpark’.)

    Interestingly, specimens which appear to definitely be pre-Flood seem to have C-14 present, too, and importantly, these cluster around a lower relative amount of C-14. This suggests that some C-14 was primordial, and not produced by cosmic rays—thus limiting the age of the entire earth to only a few thousand years.

    GEOLOGY: Plate TECTONICS, Continental Drift, Growing Earth, Hydroplate Theory, Shock Dynamics


  • Problems with Plate Tectonics / David Pratt
  • The Seven Enigmas of Plate Tectonics / New Pangaea Theory
  • Serious Issues with Plate Tectonics - The Thunderbolts Project
  • 10 Problems with Plate Tectonics - Areopagus Letters
  • plate tectonics theory challenges and problems - YouTube


  • New Pangaea Theory / "The present-day Theory of Plate Tectonics contains seven significant errors of logic that when taken together render the Theory unworkable."


  • Global Flood mechanism by Dr. John Baumgardner

    Baumgardner is a "pre-eminent expert in the design of computer models for geophysical convection, the process by which the earth creates volcanos, earthquakes, and the movement of the continental plates." Baumgardner created a computer geophysical convection modeling tool called Terra that is now used by geophysicists around the world. Baumgardner created the tool to prove the reality of the Genesis global flood.

    This theory says there was a runaway process of the ocean slabs sinking into the mantle. "The runaway sinking of ocean lithosphere together with runaway upwelling of the hot bottom layer of the mantle leads to dramatic non-local weakening throughout the entire mantle! This has huge implications for the reality of global mantle overturn during the few months allowed by the Genesis Flood timescale."

    A subsequent article "addresses an ongoing enigma for the standard geological community of why all the high mountain ranges of the world—including the Himalayas, the Alps, the Andes, and the Rockies—experienced most of the uplift to their present elevations in what amounts to a blink of the eye, relative to the standard geological time scale. These mountain ranges have all undergone several kilometers of vertical uplift since near the onset of the Ice Age. The article explains why this rapid and recent uplift is a logical consequence of an episode of catastrophic plate tectonics during the Genesis Flood.
    Recent Rapid Uplift of Today’s Mountains
    "Introduction to Catastrophic Plate Tectonics
    "With the understanding that the fossil record is a reliable indicator of the portion of the geological record produced by the Genesis Flood, what sort of physical mechanism could have produced such a staggering amount of geological change during such a brief span of time? An extremely important clue comes from today’s seafloor. Multiple lines of evidence show that all of today’s igneous seafloor rocks cooled and crystallized after a significant fraction of the continental fossil-bearing sediment record was already in place. That means that the Flood cataclysm was already well under way before any of the igneous seafloor which exists today had formed via the process of seafloor spreading. It also means that the entirety of the ocean floor that was on the earth before the Flood and much that formed during the early portion of the Flood has been recycled via subduction into the earth’s interior since the Flood’s beginning. The strong conclusion is that the processes of seafloor spreading and subduction must have unfolded at an extremely rapid pace during the Flood. The implication is that the Flood was not only a hydrological cataclysm but a tectonic cataclysm as well. This inference, which follows directly from the ages of today’s igneous seafloor rocks relative to the continental fossil-bearing sedimentary rocks, forms the logical basis for the concept known today as catastrophic plate tectonics. The following set of papers, arranged in chronological order, traces the development of this concept over the past thirty years."



  • VIDEO: Neal Adams - Science: 01 - Conspiracy: Earth is Growing! / Neal Adams Science
  • YouTube SEARCH: Dr. James Maxlow Earth Expansion Expanding
  • VIDEO: Explaining the Expanding Earth - With Peter Woodhead - Part 1
  • 19:38 Rotating weightless water sphere with air bubbles and tea leaves

    "Published on Jun 12, 2014
    "A subject not well known to many is that of the "Growing or Expanding Earth" theory.

    "Even going back to the late 17th century two of the giants of astronomy, Edmond Halley and Sir Isaac Newton believed the Earth and other planets to be hollow. In his development of the model for the universal constant for gravity G, did Newton consider that as a constant, this force would act the same way for all solid and all hollow planets?

    "Today, the foremost exponents are Dr. James Maxlow PhD . and Neal Adams . They, in turn, have followed on from previous researchers dating back to the nineteenth century -- for example I.O. Yarkovskii (1888), Otto Hildenberg (1933) and Klaus Vogel (1983) being, perhaps, the best known. Many others have contributed during the 1960's Brosske, Barnett, Creer, Shields.

    "The researchers mentioned above have produced compelling models showing that the earth has expanded in size over millions of years, but they failed to produce an acceptable mechanism for Earth's expansion.

    "In this video, recorded in Lancs, UK on 08 Apr 2014, Peter Woodhead discusses his theory as to the likely mechanism behind the Earth's expansion."


  • Hydroplate Theory Overview (parts 1-6 combined) updated HERE / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 1 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 2 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 3 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 4 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 5 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Overview Part 6 / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Origin of the Grand Canyon / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Origin of Comets, Asteroids, Meteoroids, and Trans-Neptunian Objects / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory Origin of Earth's Radioactivity / Bryan Nickel
  • Hydroplate Theory The 90 East Ridge Location / Bryan Nickel

  • Web search: 'Bryan Nickel website walt brown hydroplate theory'
  • Hydroplate Theory, Global Flood, and Dr. Walt Brown | KGOV.com
  • Real Science Radio's Hydroplate resource page | RSR
  • RSR Answers the HPT CRUST Heat Problem: Final / HPT Heat Series responds to HPT heat critics
  • RSR's List of Answers to Hydroplate Theory Objections
  • Creation Science.com / Center for Scientific Creation, Dr. Walt Brown
  • Online book: In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood / by Dr. Walt Brown, Center for Scientific Creation

  • Article: Analysis of Walt Brown’s Flood model by Michael J. Oard
  • Bryan Nickel Answers Oard's "Linear Crack" Hydroplate Theory Objection
  • Walter Brown's "Hydroplate" Flood Model Doesn't Hold Water


  • Article: The ocean is SINKING: Oceans are being consumed by Earth as dead supercontinent found | Science / Express.co.uk
    "The oceans are in a perpetual state of flux, with water flowing in and out of the Earth’s mantle. The process, known as the deep water cycle, sees water slip under the planet’s tectonic plates only to come out later through underwater volcanoes and vents. About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered in water and 97 percent of that water – more than 332,519,000 cubic miles – is found in the oceans. But the deep water process appears to be swallowing up more water than it is releasing back to the surface. And if some scientific estimates are to be believed, there could be about three to four oceans-worth of water are trapped under the mantle."
  • Article: Diamonds and water in the deep Earth: A new scenario / ResearchGate
    "Earth is a water planet, but how much water exists on and in the Earth? Is the water limited to the Earth’s surface and limited depths of our planet (molecular water of the hydrosphere), or do deep reservoirs of hydrogen and oxygen really exist as proposed in recent works but not yet proven? Due to the importance of H2O for life and geological processes on the Earth, these questions are among the most significant in all of the Earth sciences. Water must be present in the deep Earth as plate tectonics could not work without water as a major driving force that lowers both viscosity and density of the solid mineral phases of the interior and controls the onset of melting. On subduction, water is returned to the hydrosphere first by dewatering of hydrous phases and second by melting and arc magmatism in and above the subducting slab. The mantle is composed of oxygen minerals, and the extent to which hydrogen is dissolved in them constitutes the true reservoir of the planet’s water ... The necessity to review this issue arises from the recent discovery of a strongly hydrous ringwoodite in a Brazilian diamond. As ringwoodite constitutes 60% or more of the lower part of the transition zone, between 525 and 660 km depth, this could correspond to a huge amount of water in this region, comparable or greater in mass to all of Earth’s hydrosphere. If the water found in this ringwoodite is representative of the water concentrations of the transition zone, then estimates of Earth’s total water reservoir are in need of major revision. This work is an attempt at such a revision."


  • Monkey Fossil Reveals Diversity and Flood Boundary / ICR, BY JEFFREY P. TOMKINS, PH.D.
    "... Old World monkey and ape fossils both appear suddenly in the fossil record ... fossil monkeys look just like monkeys today and haven’t evolved since they first appeared ... why, if evolution is true, do monkeys first appear in amazing diversity quite suddenly about 22 to 26 million years ago with no clear monkey precursors?"
  • Moth Fossils Pester Insect Evolution / ICR, BY JEFFREY P. TOMKINS, PH.D.
    "Recently, moth fossils imbedded in both ancient amber and rocks have been analyzed in excruciating detail. Using a variety of high-powered microscopes, scientists wanted to see how much evolution occurred in the alleged 200 million years separating the fossils from their modern living versions. But the ancient creatures are exactly the same as the modern."


  • ARTICLE: Huge crater discovered in Greenland from impact that rocked Northern Hemisphere / November 14, 2018, University of Kansas
  • VIDEO: The 12,000 Year old Comet that Landed on TEDTalks…and Erased Ancient Civilization - Greenland Crater / Bright Insite


  • Web search: DNA match by percentage between humans and chimps / DuckDuckGo web search

  • Separate Studies Converge on Human-Chimp DNA Dissimilarity / OCTOBER 31, 2018, BY JEFFREY P. TOMKINS, PH.D.
    "The improvement of DNA sequencing technology, along with scientific advances in the field of genomics, is proving to be a profound enemy of evolution. Two new discoveries that challenge the human evolution paradigm were reported nearly simultaneously—one by a secular scientist and the other by myself. Remarkably, the corroborating data produced in both reports are in perfect agreement.

    "... A key element of the evolutionary paradigm is the idea that human DNA and chimpanzee DNA are 98.5% identical. This level of DNA similarity is needed to undergird the hypothesis that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor three to six million years ago. Based on known mutation rates in both humans and chimps, anything significantly less than a 98.5% DNA similarity would destroy the foundation of the entire theory.

    "University of London evolutionist Richard Buggs analyzed the results of a comprehensive comparison of the new chimp genome with the human one and posted his shocking anti-evolutionary findings. He stated, “The percentage of nucleotides in the human genome that had one-to-one exact matches in the chimpanzee genome was 84.38%.”

    "... What makes Dr. Buggs’ analysis more amazing is the fact that my own recently published research using a different algorithm gave the same results. In my study, I aligned 18,000 random pieces of high-quality chimp DNA about 31,000 DNA letters long (on average) onto human and several different versions of the chimp genome. Not only did my data show that the older version of the chimp genome (PanTro4) that had been used to support evolution was deeply flawed and humanized, but they also showed the aligned segments of chimp DNA were on average only 84.4% identical to human—the same level reported by Buggs."
  • New Chimp Genome Confirms Creationist Research / ICR
    "Since evolutionists speculate that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor about three to six million years ago, their theory requires a human-chimp DNA similarity of 98 to 99%. The first time they constructed a chimp genome and compared it to humans, they claimed 98.5% DNA similarity based on cherry-picked regions that were highly similar to human.

    "Dr. Buggs reported on his website that “the percentage of nucleotides in the human genome that had one-to-one exact matches in the chimpanzee genome was 84.38%” and “4.06% had no alignment to the chimp assembly.”?4 Assuming the chimpanzee and human genomes are about the same size, this translates to an overall similarity of only about 80%!"
  • Scientists now say the difference is 4 percent (between Human and chimpanzees), double what they have been claiming for years / Talk Origins
  • GOING APE Inside the bizarre world of human-chimp hybrids known as HUMANZEES – as a renowned scientist claims one was born in a Florida lab before being killed by panicked doctors / 2 Aug 2019, The Sun
    "Gordon Gallup, who coined the term 'humanzee', claimed that his former university professor told him the bizarre crossbreed was born at a research facility ... Details of the top secret experiments come as Chinese scientists claim to have created a human-monkey hybrid in an incredible embryo-splicing trial that could eventually allow medics to harvest an endless supply of human organs for lifesaving transplants."
  • Study: Last Common Ancestor of Humans and Apes Looked Like Gorilla or Chimpanzee / Sept 2016, Sci-News
    "Humans split from our closest African ape relatives in the genus Pan around six to seven million years ago. We have features that clearly link us with African apes, but we also have features that appear more primitive. This combination calls into question whether the Homo-Pan last common ancestor looked more like modern day chimpanzees and gorillas or an ancient ape unlike any living group. A new study, published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggests that the simplest explanation – that the ancestor looked a lot like a chimpanzee or gorilla – is the right one, at least in the shoulder."
  • Humans, chimpanzees and monkeys share DNA but not gene regulatory mechanisms / November 6, 2012 , American Society of Human Genetics
    "Humans share over 90% of their DNA with their primate cousins ... Dr. Gilad reported that up to 40% of the differences in the expression or activity patterns of genes between humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys can be explained by regulatory mechanisms that determine whether and how a gene's recipe for a protein is transcribed to the RNA molecule that carries the recipe instructions to the sites in cells where proteins are manufactured."
  • Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor explained /
    "The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) genera of Hominini. Due to complex hybrid speciation, it is not possible to give a precise estimate on the age of this ancestral population. While "original divergence" between populations may have occurred as early as 13 million years ago (Miocene), hybridization may have been ongoing until as recently as 4 million years ago (Pliocene).

    "... The "human-side" descendants of the CHLCA species are specified as members of the tribe Hominini, that is to the inclusion of the genus Homo and its closely related genus Australopithecus, but to the exclusion of the genus Pan — meaning all those human-related genera of tribe Hominini that arose after speciation from the line with Pan. Such grouping represents "the human clade" and its members are called "hominins".[3] A "chimpanzee clade" was posited by Wood and Richard, who referred it to a "Tribe Panini", which was envisioned from the family Hominidae being composed of a trifurcation of subfamilies."
  • Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor - Wikipedia
  • What About the Similarity Between Human and Chimp DNA? / AIG


  • VIDEO: Dr. Thewissen Describes Walking Whales As Best Proof
  • VIDEO: Dr. Phil Gingerich Interview About Rodhocetus
  • VIDEO: Dr. Hans Thewissen Interviewed About Walking Whale Ambulocetus
  • VIDEO: Dr. Hans Thewissen Interviewed About Blow Hole of Ambulocetus
  • VIDEO: Evolution of Whales Animation
  • VIDEO: Carl Sagan - Cosmos - Evolution of Whales


  • VIDEO: Dr Carl Baugh 2-20-1988 - What was our Atmosphere like in the Past / creation


  • WEBSEARCH: Helium retention observed in radioactive crystals in granitic rocks
  • Atmospheric helium escape problem / Answers in Genesis


  • Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth (RATE)
  • The Age of the Earth / RATE Team
  • Carbon 14 / RATE Team
  • Helium Diffusion / RATE Team
  • Radiohalos / RATE Team
  • Radiocarbon in Diamonds Confirmed / by Dr. Andrew A. Snelling on November 7, 2007
    "U.S. coal beds, conventionally dated at 40–320 million years old, were found to contain carbon-14 equivalent to ages of around 48,000–50,000 years.

    "... diamonds submitted for radiocarbon analyses did contain detectable, significant levels of carbon-14, equivalent to an age of around 55,000 years."

  • VIDEO: Upheaval: How Old Is the Earth and Its Species? | Space News
    "Earlier this year, scientists from New York and Sweden published the results of their sweeping study of 5 million DNA barcodes from about 100,000 different animal species. As reported by phys.org on May 28, 2018, the results are “sure to jostle, if not overturn, more than one settled idea about how evolution unfolds."

    "In addition to a shocking absence of genetic diversity, the authors were stunned to conclude that about 9 out of every 10 species on Earth appear to have come into being at about the same time, apparently sometime between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. Study co-author David Thaler said of the findings, "This conclusion is very surprising, and I fought against it as hard as I could.” One unavoidable possibility these results raise is articulated in the phys.org report, which asks, “Was there some catastrophic event 200,000 years ago that nearly wiped the slate clean?”

    In part one of this two-part presentation, Thunderbolts colleague Peter Mungo Jupp begins a comprehensive and radical re-assessment of the questions: how old is the Earth, and how has life unfolded upon it? Source story: Sweeping gene survey reveals new facets of evolution.

  • Sweeping gene survey reveals new facets of evolution / by Marlowe Hood, phys.org, 5/28/2018
    "It is textbook biology, for example, that species with large, far-flung populations—think ants, rats, humans—will become more genetically diverse over time.

    "But is that true?

    "The answer is no," said Stoeckle, lead author of the study, published in the journal Human Evolution.

    "For the planet's 7.6 billion people, 500 million house sparrows, or 100,000 sandpipers, genetic diversity "is about the same," he told AFP.

    "The study's most startling result, perhaps, is that nine out of 10 species on Earth today, including humans, came into being 100,000 to 200,000 years ago."


    Out of Place Fossils:

    Evidence of modern animals in dinosaur layers
  • ARTICLE: Living fossils: a powerful argument for creation
  • ARTICLE: 'Siberian unicorn' walked Earth with humans
  • VIDEO: Modern Birds Found With Dinosaurs
  • VIDEO: Living Fossils, Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Episode 2
  • Article: Will Fish Fossil Change Evolutionary Tree? | Answers in Genesis
  • Article: Order in the Fossil Record | Dr. Andrew A. Snelling
  • VIDEO: The Evidence of the Fossil Record
    "Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. Stephen Meyer explore where the problems with modern evolutionary theory began."
    Meyer points out the magnitude of the Cambrian Explosion:
  • The Animal Kingdom:
    • About 36 phyla in the history of life
    • A Phylum is the largest division of animal classification
    • About 26-27 phyla are fossilized
    • 20 of these fossilized phyla first appear in the Cambrian period without ancestral forms in the lower strata
  • The Cambrian Explosion - The Burgess Shale: [1 - web search: cambrian explosion burgess shale]
    542-505 million years ago. "all major animal body plans (each more or less corresponding to a distinctive Phylum"(1)


    Evidence suggesting dinosaurs contemporary with man
  • WEBSEARCH: Dinosaur Figurines Of Acambaro Central and South America
  • WEBSEARCH: Nazca Ica burial stones
  • History of the Nazca Ica burial stones
  • VIDEO: Dinosaurs Lived With Humans
  • VIDEO: Extraordinary Evidence that Dinosaurs Lived with Man - Dr. Don Patton (The Record of the Rocks)
  • VIDEO: 101 Scientific Proofs That Dinosaurs Lived With Man - Kent Hovind
  • VIDEO: 6 'Impossible' Fossils That Could COMPLETELY Rewrite Human History
  • VIDEO: Do Dinosaurs Pose a Gravity Problem? Part 1 | Space News / Ted Holden ("Cosmos in Collision") - Dinosaur Gravity Problem
  • VIDEO: Could Dinosaurs Have Existed 'Recently'? Part 2 | Space News / Ted Holden
  • Web search: The Dinosaur Gravity Problem
  • VIDEO: Upheaval: How Old Is the Earth and Its Species? | Space News / Dating methods
  • VIDEO: The Evolution of Life on the Electric Earth | Space News / Dating methods

    Evidence showing dinosaur fossils can't be millions of years old
    Science of fossilization is severely flawed
  • Listing: Dinosaur Soft Tissue is Original Biological Material / peer-reviewed journal papers documenting the existence of dinosaur soft tissue
    "Discoveries of actual (extant endogenous) soft tissue from T. rex and other dinosaurs have been reported in many recent peer-reviewed scientific journal articles. See http://kgov.com/dinosaur-soft-tissue for a comprehensive catalog of these papers published in Nature, Science, PNAS, PLoS One, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Bone, the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, etc. The biological material found as of May 2015, in fossils from dinosaur-layer and deeper strata, include flexible and transparent blood vessels, red blood cells, many various proteins including the microtubule building block tubulin, collagen, the cytoskeleton component actin, and hemoglobin, bone maintenance osteocyte cells, DNA-related histone proteins, and powerful evidence for DNA including positive results from multiple double-helix tests. The dinosaur and other Mesozoic creatures that have yielded their biological material are hadrosaur, titanosaur, ornithomimosaur [ostrich-like dinosaurs], mosasaur, triceratops, Lufengosaurs, T. rex, and Archaeopteryx."
    -- Bob Enyart
      • PAPER: Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis
        "The first paper to sometimes drop qualifier "like" as in "blood-vessel-like" and state clearly "dinosaur vessels", etc."
      • PAPER: Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present
        "Soft tissues and cell-like microstructures derived from skeletal elements of a well-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex (MOR 1125) were represented by four components in fragments of demineralized cortical and/or medullary bone: flexible and fibrous bone matrix; transparent, hollow and pliable blood vessels; intravascular material, including in some cases, structures morphologically reminiscent of vertebrate red blood cells; and osteocytes with intracellular contents and flexible filipodia."
      • PAPER: Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex
        "Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft tissues may retain some of their original flexibility, elasticity, and resilience."
      • PAPER: Blood Vessels and Red Blood Cells Preserved in Dinosaur Bones
        "Dinosaur bones, 80 million years old, were studied in the scanning electron microscope, and subjected to X-ray microanalysis. Samples for the investigations were prepared according to specially elaborated, and simultaneously described methods. Analysed were (a) the morphological structure of the blood vessels and (b) the remains of their contents. The walls of the blood vessels were found to be morphologically identical with those in present-day reptiles. Bodies were found at several places inside the vessels which strongly remind one of erythrocytes in modern bones. X-ray microanalysis of places where these bodies were accumulated revealed much higher levels of iron, than at any other regions of the blood-vessel wall. Further analysis of the "dinosaur erythrocyte" iron content could be a starting point for the possible determination of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere, 80 million years ago."
      • PAPER: Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million–year-old dinosaur specimens
        "we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood"
      • PAPER:

  • Web search: Mark Armitage
  • Backyard Microscope: | Website | Youtube | Facebook |
  • Dinosaur Soft Tissue Research Institute (dstri)
  • VIDEO: soft tissue in dino fossils-nothing in science can allow this to be millions of years old / Ron Reagan
  • VIDEO: 60 Minutes Presents: B-Rex (soft-tissue) / 60 Minutes Interviews Mary Schweitzer
  • VIDEO: Dinosaur Soft Tissue Found
  • VIDEO: Dinosaur Soft Tissue - Hear Evolutionist Refuse To Carbon Date Dinosaur / Bob Enyart
  • VIDEO: Dinosaur Soft Tissue is Original Biological Material / Bob Enyart | KGOV.com
  • VIDEO: Decontaminated dinosaur bones Carbon-14 dated
  • VIDEO: Dinosaur with skin discovered
  • VIDEO: Mammoth Found with "Flowing Blood" - SourceFed
  • VIDEO: How Creationism Taught Me Real Science 21 Dinosaur Soft Tissue
  • VIDEO: Mysterious dinosaur-like creature discovered with flesh still on its bones leaves scientists baffled

    Dinosaur to bird theory
  • Zoologist Dr. Marc Surtees: The Dino-Bird Evolution Controversy
  • Birds: The Late Evolution of Dinosaurs / pro-evolution
  • Websearch: maniraptoran theropod
  • Evolutionists Have Been WRONG About Dinosaurs for Years
    "Evolutionists have been way off on the appearance and anatomy of dinosaurs for years. In this video, Dr. Gabriela Haynes and Joel Leineweber discuss the three big differences between dinosaurs and birds."
  • Feathered Dinosaurs Found in Canada?
  • Feathers: What's flight got to do - got to do with it? / Steve Hunter, ncsce.org
    "In the cold light of day, some of these seem most likely to be birds and, therefore, that they are feathered is not particularly surprising. But some of these beasts do seem to be dinosaurs ... All and all, one would be hard pressed to come up with any confirmed details in these structures that compellingly remind us of any of the details of a feather or of feather development ... Feathers are wonderfully complex structures that, as far as we know, are unique to birds. It seems to me that any analysis that seeks to find the origin of birds, but gives short shrift to feathers, is doomed to be half-assed."


  • VIDEO: Hard Questions for Evolutionists - Part 1 of 2 - Dr. Carl Baugh


      • VIDEO: A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry
        "Universal common ancestry (UCA) is a central pillar of modern evolutionary theory1. As first suggested by Darwin2, the theory of UCA posits that all extant terrestrial organisms share a common genetic heritage, each being the genealogical descendant of a single species from the distant past3,4,5,6. The classic evidence for UCA, although massive, is largely restricted to ‘local’ common ancestry—for example, of specific phyla rather than the entirety of life—and has yet to fully integrate the recent advances from modern phylogenetics and probability theory. Although UCA is widely assumed, it has rarely been subjected to formal quantitative testing ... Here I provide the first, to my knowledge, formal, fundamental test of UCA, without assuming that sequence similarity implies genetic kinship ... These results provide powerful statistical evidence corroborating the monophyly of all known life."


  • A Scientific Dissent from Darwin - There is a scientific dissent from Darwinism and it deserves to be heard


  • VIDEO: Gyroscopic Primer by Prof Eric Laithwaite Full Video
    "This is probably the quintessential physical and visual model for the relationship between Electricity, Magnetism and Gravity. Prof. Eric Laithwaite gives an excellent presentation into gyroscopes and a very clear cause and effect understanding for the kinesthetic learners among us."
  • VIDEO: Lec 24: Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes | 8.01 Classical Mechanics, Fall 1999 (Walter Lewin)
    "Rolling Motion, Gyroscopes, Very Non-intuitive. This lecture is part of 8.01 Physics I: Classical Mechanics, as taught in Fall 1999 by Dr. Walter Lewin at MIT."


  • VIDEO: inverter: Amazing Discovery With Magnets / buy


  • Phlogiston Theory
    "The theory, advanced by J. J. Becher late in the 17th cent. and extended and popularized by G. E. Stahl, postulates that in all flammable materials there is present phlogiston, a substance without color, odor, taste, or weight that is given off in burning. "Phlogisticated" substances are those that contain phlogiston and, on being burned, are "dephlogisticated." The ash of the burned material is held to be the true material. The theory received strong and wide support throughout a large part of the 18th cent. until it was refuted by the work of A. L. Lavoisier, who revealed the true nature of combustion. Joseph Priestley, however, defended the theory throughout his lifetime."
    -- The Free Dictionary

  • ARTICLE: The Discarded Phlogiston Theory in Early Chemistry History / ThoughtCo

  • N-Rays
  • ARTICLE: N-Rays
    "N-rays were invisible. They had to be observed by first refracting them through a prism that was coated by aluminum and then by observing a glow on a thread coated that was cover with calcium sulfide. This experiment was supposedly replicated by 30 different research teams, involving over 100 researchers, who wrote some 300 papers about their N-rays findings. Yet several prominent labs could not replicate these results."


  • VIDEO: Willow Creek says The Church is Failing video.wmv
  • VIDEO: FALLOUT! Students explain why they left the church
  • VIDEO: Marine Biologist Dr. Robert Carter on Evolutionism / on the falling away of young


  • VIDEO: 17 Hour Creation Seminar by Dr. Kent Hovind (free)
  • Creation vs Evolution Notebook / Kent Hovind


  • VIDEO: The text discovered in the charred Ein Gedi scroll is "100 percent identical" to the version of the Book of Leviticus that has been in use for centuries


  • VIDEO: Believe in God in 5 Minutes (Scientific Proof)
  • VIDEO: Non Biblical evidence as proof for Jesus Christ (1 of 4)
  • Jesus Existed: Atheist Ph.D Corrects Mythicist
    "Dr. Bart Ehrman is an Agnostic speaking at a Freedom From Religion conference. His curt response to a Jesus Mythisist is to his credit given the venue. American professor and scholar, currently the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is one of North America's leading scholars in his field, having written and edited 30 books, including three college textbooks. Ehrman's work focuses on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity."
  • Richard Dawkins Admits Jesus Existed
  • VIDEO: Hitchens: Cancer, Life and Deathbed Conversion?
  • VIDEO: Evolution Vs. God Movie
  • Stephen Hawking's Final Book ["Brief Answers to Big Questions"] Says There's 'No Possibility' of God in Our Universe / Live Science, October 17, 2018
    "I think the universe was spontaneously created out of nothing, according to the laws of science ... If you accept, as I do, that the laws of nature are fixed, then it doesn't take long to ask: What role is there for God? ... If you like, you can say the laws are the work of God, but that is more a definition of God than a proof of his existence ... Did God create the quantum laws that allowed the Big Bang to occur? ... I have no desire to offend anyone of faith, but I think science has a more compelling explanation than a divine creator ... The universe itself, in all its mind-boggling vastness and complexity, could simply have popped into existence without violating the known laws of nature ... We have finally found something that doesn’t have a cause, because there was no time for a cause to exist in ... For me this means that there is no possibility of a creator, because there is no time for a creator to have existed in ... We have this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe ... and for that I am extremely grateful."

    -- Stephen Hawking, Brief Answers to Big Questions, taken from Live Science.


  • VIDEO: Rob Bell speaking at Willow Creek Community Church on book of Revelations


  • Best video showing that the new Temple of God will be built in the city of David
  • Prophecy Fulfilled City of David 'Shakes Off the Dust'


  • WEBSEARCH: pre adamic adamite people
  • VIDEO: Adam & Eve Report / UBtheNEWS, Urantia Book & research led by Bruce Lahn at the University of Chicago's Howard Hughes Medical Institute [Microcephalin gene]
  • Adam and Eve Report / UBtheNews.com, Urantia Book, gene research


    Originally suggested by Thomas Chalmers in 1814.
    Earth's Earlies Ages by George H. Pember, 1907
    The Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse, 1965, Missler must read
    Without Form and Void by Arthur C. Custance, 1970

  • The Gap Theory - Chuck Missler
  • Genesis 1: 2

    Genesis 1: 2 (KJV)
    2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

    Genesis 1: 2 (Missler taking into account the words 'tohu' and 'bohu')
    2 BUT the earth HAD BECOME without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

    Jeremiah 4: 23-27 (KJV)
    23 I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was without form, and void; and the heavens, and they had no light.
    24 I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved lightly.
    25 I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the heavens were fled.
    26 I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of the Lord, and by his fierce anger.
    27 For thus hath the Lord said, The whole land shall be desolate; yet will I not make a full end.

    - 'tohu': without form, confused
    - 'bohu': empty, waste
    - 'hayah': instead of 'was without form and void' substitute 'had become without form and void' (pluperfect form as used in Genesis 19:26)
    - 'vav': (adversative conjuction meaning 'But' as used in the Septuagint and the Vulgate sometimes implying a significant time delay. Exodus 1:2 is an 8 year period. Deuteronomy 10:5-6 is a 38 year period. 1 Chronicles 10:14 and 11:1 is a 7 year period. Ezekiel 6:22 and 7:1 is a 58 year period)
    - 'choshek': unnaturaly darkness instead of 'darkness'. As used in Exodus 10:21.
    - 'tehowm': instead of 'the deep' (abussos, the abyss; the home of demons and evil spirits.

  • Isaiah 45:18
  • Jeremiah 4: 23-27
  • Psalm 18: 7-15

    See also: Genesis 1:2, Creation, or Re-Creation - Pastor Chuck Missler
  • When Did Satan Fall? The Angelic Domain: Created Before Genesis 1:1 or After? (Gap Theory Refuted) / Douglas Hamp
    "Douglas Hamp graduated from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with an M.A. in the Hebrew Bible and Its World where he specialized in ancient languages including Biblical Hebrew and Greek."
  • Gap Theorists Defended / by David J. Stewart
  • What is the Gap Theory: It's Origin & History / Christian Answers
  • The Gap Theory Denies the Purpose of the Cross / Kent Hovind
  • WITHOUT FORM AND VOID / Arthur C. Custance
    "Should Genesis 1:2 be rendered (as in the King James Version)
    "And the earth was without form and void"
    "But the earth had become without form and void"?

    "The question is whether to translate the Hebrew conjunction waw as 'and' or 'but' and whether to translate the verb hayah simply as 'was' or by the pluperfect 'had become'.

    "If the translation of 'and' and 'was' is correct, then verse 2 appears to be merely a continuation of verse 1, signifying that its formless condition was proper to the initial stages of God's creative activity. In this translation we must either take 'days' to mean not literal days but geological ages, or treat the whole chapter as poetry or allegory. These 'solutions' are not supported by the rules of linguistics.

    "If the translation of 'but' and 'had become' is correct, the implication is far different. For then verse 2 is a picture of the earth, not as it came from the hand of God in creation, but after some intervening event had reduced it to a state of ruin. This alternative translation allows between verse 1 and 2 a hiatus of unknown duration (a view held in earliest times) which can accommodate geological ages. Opponents object to this 'Gap Theory' as simply an attempt to 'rescue' modern Geology.

    "... This book is an examination of the Hebrew words in this second verse of Genesis, observing the rules of linguistics, of grammar and syntax, and the context in an attempt to establish the meaning of the words as found here."
  • The Truth About Evolution Or; Don’t Let Satan Make A Monkey Out of You! /
    "Has man and earth existed millions of years allowing man time to evolve to his present state? The answer is, "Yes" concerning the earth; and "No" concerning man."
  • Real Science Radio


  • Image from: TimeMaps.com
  • HyperHistory Timeline


  • Darwinism
  • Neo-Darwinism
  • Modern Synthesis (MS)
  • Evolution 2.0
  • Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) a.k.a. Evolution 3.0
  • The Third Way
  • Post-Darwinism
    • Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution 2.0- Perry Marshall debates Stephen Meyer
      "Evolution 2.0
      Published on Mar 2, 2017

      Click here to get 3 free chapters - a Communication Engineer’s adventure through the creation-evolution divide: http://cosmicfingerprints.com/evolution/

      Unbelievable Podcast host Justin Brierley welcomes Stephen Meyer and Perry Marshall to discuss a hot-topic in christian and science circles...

      "It didn’t make front-page headlines across the world, but many biologists are saying that something quite exciting happened at the Royal Society in London last year.

      "The Royal Society is one of the world’s oldest and most respected scientific institutions, and has been at the forefront of championing the theory of evolution. But at its meeting in November 2016, New Trends in Evolutionary Biology — that was the name of the conference—many are saying the door was opened to potentially alternative explanations for the way life, in contrast to the standard Neo-Darwinian explanation of evolution by natural selection acting on random mutation.

      "Dr. Denis Noble, who hosted the conference, brought together leading voices in the so-called “Third Way” movement in biology. People like James Shapiro, Sonia Sultan, and Gerd Müller, whose research some people say has challenged the prevailing orthodoxy.

      "What does all this mean for the future of evolutionary theory? Does it open the door to things like Intelligent Design or a role for God in the evolutionary process? Or something else entirely? Well, two people who were both there are joining me for Unbelievable today for what I’m sure will be a really interesting, scientific, philosophical and theological discussion."

      "We both see the fault in the current paradigm. The art is to convince the biomedical research community that there's a better way. I've been struggling with this issue more than fifteen years now, publishing and sharing meetings both in the US and Europe, and my own sense is that there's fear in the group that if they blink on the subject of Darwinian Evolution, the ID people will literally and figuratively eat their lunch. So the task is to switch to another paradigm while sustaining the existing one."
      - Perry Marshall reads an email he received from an evolutionary biologist. @27:22 in the video interview, Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution 2.0- Perry Marshall debates Stephen Meyer

      Later on (@37:30), Meyer says that this reaction is 'a statement of metaphysical panic.' They don't want to consider something that would take them outside of a naturalistic framework. And that same panic was in evidence at the meeting, and at one point, even Jablanca(?) was under pressure from one of the old-line neo-Darwinists in her talk ... and the neo-Darwinist said, "No we don't need to consider these alternatives, and Eva(?) unprompted said, 'I'm not talking about God.' ... God was the elephant in the room ... But terror as the alternative perspective, if you don't like for metaphysical reasons, is not a scientific justification for claims about the creative power of mechanisms that have not yet demonstrated that creative power. We need actual demonstrations ... I don't think it solves the prolem of macroevolution."

      Marshall @41:25 says, "I would propose ... that a cell is something like a quantum computer with a linguistic engine, and it can respond to the environment and create something new that never existed before because it is not merely a mechanism. It is a 'self' that is doing what it needs to do to maintain homeostasis ... Now this is going to make neo-Darwinists extremely uncomfortable, but if you look at what cells do ... it's obvious that they're doing something like this. I would like to suggest to you that if a protozoan can rearrange its DNA in a hundred thousand pieces and not not only still work but actually be better off than it was before, and if you can do that in twelve hours, then what can happen in ten years or twenty years or a million years? So this is the approach that I think we should be taking with the Cambrian ..."

      Marshall @1:02:30 claims that "The cell is an agent. There's a wonderful book by Bob Lanza called 'Biocentrism: How Life and Consciousness are the Keys to Understanding the True Nature of the Universe' which makes an extremely robust case that the Universe is a consciousness first, matter second phenomenon - not the other way around. I would like to suggest to the Intelligent Design community that if you want to defeat scientific reductionism, which I am in agreement needs to be done. Science is not reductionistic. Biology is not reductionistic. What you need to do, instead of fighting ... macroevolution - you need to embrace it because what we don't know is how smart those cells really are. A bacterium can do more software engineering in twelve minutes than a team of Google engineers can do in twelve weeks ... If I take the old-school neo-Darwinist position, I will lose market share every year as more and more things turn out to be orderly instead of random ... If I take the Third Way view, my market share will grow and grow because the explanatory power of an integrationist - non-reductionist paradigm which also considers consciousness - it can in principle explain what's going on at the high level but it gives us scientists something to actually do. So I'm making a prediction that over time we are going to continue to explain more and more of the developments in taxa from species to phyla (Taxonomic ranks: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain). I think the next twenty years are going to be fantastic and that people in technology can learn a tremendous amount from biology."

      Meyer's responds. "I think most of us would agree that we're smarter than bacteria, but we in our conscious minds have no idea how to respond to various environmental stressors to rewrite our DNA to express different proteins under different circumstances. So if this isn't done by our conscious awareness then there must be some pre-programming that is enabling the cell or the organism to do this ... A lot of the experiments that have been done already show that such pre-programming is present. In fact, that is Shapiro said. So really, the question is the origin of that pre-programming. I think it would be a mistake to imput higher consciousness to a bacterial cell. That would take us down the [path to some sort of mysticism] ... There's all kinds of great research projects. Let me tell you about one that is relevant to cancer research. There's a problem in evolutionary theory called the 'Waiting Times Problem.'"
      "Given the unique capabilities of humans, an evolving hominin population (as would give rise to modern man) would need to establish a great deal of new information."

      "It is estimated that it only took six million years for the chimp and human genomes to diverge by over 5%, representing about 150 million nucleotide differences."

      "The gene can range in size from about 1,000 to more than one million nucleotides long. A typical human gene is roughly 50,000 nucleotides long. A new gene is thought to arise from a previously existing gene, with the mutation/selection process establishing mutations within a long text string that is already established and functional."

      "It is now generally recognized that beneficial mutations are rare, and that high-impact beneficial mutations are extremely rare. In higher life forms where population sizes are modest, the mutation rate per nucleotide per generation is normally extremely low (about 10-8). This means that the waiting time for a specific nucleotide within single chromosomal lineage would be 100 million generations."

      "We simulated a classic pre-human hominin population of at least 10,000 individuals, with a generation time of 20 years, using the numerical simulation program Mendel’s Accountant (Mendel version 2.4.2, now being released as 2.5)."

      "Biologically realistic numerical simulations revealed that a population of this type required inordinately long waiting times to establish even the shortest nucleotide strings. To establish a string of two nucleotides required on average 84 million years. To establish a string of five nucleotides required on average 2 billion years. We found that waiting times were reduced by higher mutation rates, stronger fitness benefits, and larger population sizes. However, even using the most generous feasible parameter settings, the waiting time required to establish any specific nucleotide string within this type of population was consistently prohibitive."

      "Even given very substantial fitness effects, the waiting time for a specific point mutation ranged between 1.5 and 15.9 million years" which "is very sobering, since it is estimated that mankind evolved from a chimp-like creature in just 6 million years."

      "As string length increased linearly, the increase in waiting time was of an exponential nature. When there were as many as six nucleotides in the string, the average waiting time (4.24 billion years) approached the estimated age of the earth. When there were eight nucleotides in the string, the average waiting time (18.5 billion years), exceeded the estimated age of the universe."

      "Our results generally represent best-case scenarios in terms of minimizing waiting time. When we use more realistic parameter settings for our simulations, we consistently get much longer waiting times."

      "When a population faces a specific evolutionary challenge, a specific fix is needed, and it must arise in a timely fashion. Positive selection cannot generally begin to resolve an evolutionary challenge until just the right mutation (or mutations) happens at just the right position (or positions). Selection for the required trait can only begin after the mutation (or mutations) result in a substantial (selectable) improvement in total biological functionality."

      "The creation and fixation of a string of three (requiring at least 380 million years) would be extremely untimely adaptation in the face of any type of pressing evolutionary challenge (and trivial in effect), in terms of the evolution of modern man" who has "a genome with over three billion nucleotides."

      "We need multiple point mutations to arise on the same short strand of DNA, which is very difficult. While a population is waiting (through deep time) for the correct string to arise, genetic drift is systematically eliminating almost all the string variants. Nearly all of the time there will be essentially zero strings anywhere in the population that are even close to the target string."

      "It is widely thought that a larger population size can eliminate the waiting time problem. While our simulations show that larger populations do help reduce waiting time, we see that the benefit of larger population size produces rapidly diminishing returns. When we increase the hominin population from 10,000 to 1 million, the waiting time for creating a string of five is only reduced from two billion to 482 million years. This amount of time approximates the estimated time required for the evolution of worm-like creatures into people. When we extrapolate our data to a population size of ten million we still get a waiting time of 202 million years. Even when we extrapolate to a population size of one billion we still have a waiting time of 40 million years."

      "A bigger population increases the number of mutations arising per generation, but does not increase the number of mutations per short DNA strand (mutation density). To create a complete set of linked mutations requires many mutations arising on the same short stretch of a given DNA molecule."

      "Numerous other researchers have come to similar conclusions. The long waiting times we report here are even supported indirectly by the papers that have argued against a serious waiting time problem. When examined carefully, those papers indicate that for a hominin-type population, waiting times are as long or even longer than we report here."

      [It is true that] "during the waiting time period for a functional string to be established at a given location, other beneficial mutational strings can be happening in other parts of the genome."

      "However, those other strings are not likely to meet the same specific evolutionary need that our target string can meet. Evolution often needs a specific fix to a specific problem, and that fix must be timely in order to retain relevance."

      "Even if all of the ~20,000 genes in the hominin genome were already poised for a significant enhancement and all of them were waiting for their own specific string, each one of those potential enhancements would have its own severe waiting time problem."

      "Furthermore, this would be happening in the context of countless nearly-neutral deleterious mutations throughout the genome which would drift to fixation within the same deep time. Unless there was very strong purifying selection operating for all the nucleotides in the general region of the string, the context of the string would be erased long before the string itself actually arose."

      "The waiting time problem becomes very severe when more than one mutation is required to establish a new function. This is a very interesting theoretical dilemma."

      -- Sanford, John, Wesley Brewer, Franzine Smith and John Baumgardner. September 17, 2015. The waiting time problem in a model hominin population. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, Vol. 12, No. 1, Article 18, 28 pages, DOI: 10.1186/s12976-015-0016-z.

    • Web search: The Waiting Times Problem in evolutionary theory
    • Meyers continues. "The kind of research we are doing actually quantifying those waiting times could be very useful in cancer research, and it's actually predicated on the understanding that there are limits to what evolutionary mechanisms can produce. When we examine not only neo-Darwinism but these Third Way mechanisms we're seeing clear evidence of limits as well as capabilities. So mapping where those boundary lines lie is a crucially important part of understanding what happened in the evolutionary past, but it's also crucially important to addressing disease in the present like cancer and anti-biotic resistance."

      The host of Unbelievable, Justin Brierley, asks Perry Marshall how long he thinks it will take for text books to catch up with the new knowledge of how biology actually works.

      Marshall responds. "There's an old saying that 'Science progresses one funeral at a time,' and it's certainly true that a lot of scientists have to die before new theories get a chance ... But you might have been right a few years ago to say the text books would be slow to catch up this, but given the Internet and the information age, I think this will be fast. Not slow. I think this will be like the Berlin Wall where once it went down and once Communism started tumbling, I think we're looking at three to five years before there's a complete paradigm shift - not only inside the sciences but in the pop culture."

      Meyer makes a point about the predictive power of ID in regards to the issue of 'junk DNA'. He notes that the evolutionists predicted initially thought that 97% of the DNA was junk DNA representing the residual of the trial and error of random mutation, and that only 3% of the DNA was functional. ID scientists predicted that, while mutations are real processes, the signal would not be dwarfed by the noise, so IDers expected to find function in that allegedly non-functional region of the genome ... and especially with the publication of the ENCODE Project (ENCODE: Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) the ID perspective has been borne out. "And in fact, Jim Shapiro, one of the scientists who was writing on this, gave credit to Rick Sternberg, Richard Sternberg, formally of the Smithsonian, one of our ID collegues, for being the first guy to see this. And he [Shapiro] he did so in the Huffington Post of all places ... That's just one of many examples of where ID has heuristic value ... So we think that [ID] is not a science stopper - it is a science starter."

      Meyer states, "I don't think we have a Third Way here. I think we just have people who are not addressing the fundamental question of the origin of information after the key question of the origin of life. I love what Perry says about the origin of life. He's absolutely right. But that question of the origin of information does not go away as you ascend up the biological hierarchy ... You can't get higher level body plan structure out of genetic information alone. So when you have these mechanisms like horizontal gene transfer or natural genetic engineering, their not going to give you that level of complexity. Their going to give you some new proteins ... There are real limits to what these mechanisms can do. They're demonstrable. It's really cool science ... I understand why [neo-Darwinists] are upset. They're being passed by. I don't think the Third Way solves the information problem. And that's not a matter of 'God of the Gaps' ... it's a matter of doing some fundamental science and tracing the information flows. If you trace them back to your source you get the singularities where no evolutionary mechanism accounts for the origin of the programming that is necessary."

      Perry Marshall makes the point on page 192 in 'Evolution 2.0' that all codes are created by conscious minds and therefore the code in DNA must have been created by a conscious mind. According to Stephen Meyer, Marshall is making the ID argument for the origin of first life, "but when it comes to biological evolution as opposed to chemical evolution, he thinks that these 'third way' mechanisms are sufficient or promising enough that we ought not consider design as an explanation after the poinit of the first life."

      Meyer makes this point regarding DNA and epigenetics beginning at 36:00. "The problem of epigenetic information. Not all the information necessary to build a body plan is in DNA. DNA codes for building proteins, but proteins have to be organized into biosynthetic pathways that would characterize different kinds of cells and cell types. Different cell types have to be organized into differnt tissues. Different tissues have to be organized into different organs and organs and tissues have to be organized into whole body plans. The information for doing that is not solely in the DNA. Higher levels of information stored elsewhere are required to organize all those different levels of the biological hierarchy. Shapiro is focusing on natural genetic engineering and as such you might get proteins out of this but he's not going to explain the origin of body plans. And that is the crucial question ... Where does that higher level of inovation come from? ... So these [Third Way] mechanisms solve those problems ..."
    • Evolution 2.0 Origin of Life Video / Perry Marshall
    • Web search: Alternatives to evolution by natural selection third way
    • Website: THE THIRD WAY: evolution in the era of genomics and epigenomics
      "The vast majority of people believe that there are only two alternative ways to explain the origins of biological diversity. One way is Creationism that depends upon intervention by a divine Creator. That is clearly unscientific because it brings an arbitrary supernatural force into the evolution process. The commonly accepted alternative is Neo-Darwinism, which is clearly naturalistic science but ignores much contemporary molecular evidence and invokes a set of unsupported assumptions about the accidental nature of hereditary variation. Neo-Darwinism ignores important rapid evolutionary processes such as symbiogenesis, horizontal DNA transfer, action of mobile DNA and epigenetic modifications. Moreover, some Neo-Darwinists have elevated Natural Selection into a unique creative force that solves all the difficult evolutionary problems without a real empirical basis. Many scientists today see the need for a deeper and more complete exploration of all aspects of the evolutionary process."
    • A Third Way: James Shapiro and the Post-Modern Synthesis
    • Neo-Darwinism has failed as an evolutionary theory / May 19, 1995
      "Darwinism is a theory of evolution based upon inherited variations in organisms and natural selection of fitter variants to produce species adapted to their habitats. Twentieth-century biology added a theory of inheritance, the science of genetics, to give Neo-Darwinism ...

      "There is no doubt about the importance of the insights that have resulted from this increased genetic and molecular focus. The problem is that the claims made for these revelations are frequently so misleading and distorted that the whole field becomes tarnished by exaggeration and real scientific problems are obscured ...

      "A widely quoted example with which many biologists agree is the description by Delisi (American Scientist) of what the human genome project will reveal about human development. "This collection of chromosomes in the fertilised egg constitutes the complete set of instructions for development, determining the timing and details of the formation of the heart, the central nervous system, the immune system, and every other organ and tissue required for life."

      "... Lewis Wolpert delivers the same message as Dawkins: "DNA provides the programme which controls development of the embryo and brings about epigenesis" (The Triumph of the Embryo) ...

      "What is wrong with these statements is that they define scientific positions that need to be backed up by models that demonstrate precisely how a knowledge of genes in the developing organism will lead to an understanding of the three-dimensional form of the human heart or limb or eye, the arrangement of leaves on a plant and the organs of the flower, or the wings of a fruit fly. But this is not provided. The discussion always stops at the spatial patterns of gene products in developing organisms, if indeed it gets even that far. The crucial step of generating the actual three-dimensional structures that characterise the distinctive morphology of species is left unexplained."


  • Bible Verses Pertaining to Creation & Science

    Isaiah 45:18 (KJV) "For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else." ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

    Proverbs 25:2 (ASV) "It is the glory of God to conceal a thing; but the glory of kings to search out a matter." / Solomon ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

    Romans 1:20 (KJV) "For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:" ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

    2 Corinthians 4:18 (AMP) "Since we consider and look not to the things that are seen but to the things that are unseen; for the things that are visible are temporal (brief and fleeting), but the things that are invisible are deathless and everlasting." ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

    Ephesians 3:9 (KJV) "And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:" ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

    Isaiah 45:12 (NIV) "It is I who made the earth and created mankind on it. My own hands stretched out the heavens; I marshaled their starry hosts." ( AMP, ASV, KJV, NIV )

  • Defining Evolution

    Defining Evolution | NCSE NCSE History of the Definiion of Evolution

  • Consensus Science

    "There is no such thing as consensus science. If it’s consensus, it isn’t science. If it’s science, it isn’t consensus. Period."
    - Michael Crichton, MD.

    “I want to pause here and talk about this notion of consensus, and the rise of what has been called consensus science. I regard consensus science as an extremely pernicious development that ought to be stopped cold in its tracks. Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you’re being had.

    “Let’s be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus.

    “There is no such thing as consensus science. If it’s consensus, it isn’t science. If it’s science, it isn’t consensus. Period.” [Crichton gave a number of examples where the scientific consensus was completely wrong for many years.]

    “... Finally, I would remind you to notice where the claim of consensus is invoked. Consensus is invoked only in situations where the science is not solid enough. Nobody says the consensus of scientists agrees that E = mc². Nobody says the consensus is that the sun is 93 million miles away. It would never occur to anyone to speak that way.”

    -- Source: Crichton, Michael, Aliens cause Global Warming, 17 January 2003 speech at the California Institute of Technology (here or here)

  • Planetary Magnetice Fields

    "The mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field [of Earth] remains one of the central unsolved problems in geoscience."
    -- National Geomagnetic Initiative Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources

    At what rate is Earth's magnetic field decaying? Websearch here.


    Abiogenesis: "Abiogenesis, the idea that life arose from nonlife more than 3.5 billion years ago on Earth ... While the hypothetical process of spontaneous generation was disproved as early as the 17th century and decisively rejected in the 19th century, abiogenesis has been neither proved nor disproved." Britannica

  • Arcsecond: One degree of arc is divided up into 60 arcminutes. Each arcminute is divided up into 60 arcseconds. An arcsecond is 1/3600th of a degree. The smallest angle measured in astronomy is about one thousandth of an arcsecond.

  • Artificial life: creating a whole new artificial life system

  • Euclidean n-space, sometimes called Cartesian space: "In geometry, a two- or three-dimensional space in which the axioms and postulates of Euclidean geometry apply; also, a space in any finite number of dimensions, in which points are designated by coordinates (one for each dimension) and the distance between two points is given by a distance formula. The only conception of physical space for over 2,000 years, it remains the most compelling and useful way of modeling the world as it is experienced. Though non-Euclidean spaces, such as those that emerge from elliptic geometry and hyperbolic geometry, have led scientists to a better understanding of the universe and of mathematics itself, Euclidean space remains the point of departure for their study." - Encyclopedia Britannica

  • Fact v. Theory (Stephen Jay Gould): Facts are the world's data. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts.

  • Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA): Paraphrased, "Whatever begins to exist had a cause; the universe began to exist; therefore, the universe had a cause."
    Source here. VIDEO here.

  • Logical Positivism: Logical Positivism definition is - a 20th century philosophical movement holding that all meaningful statements are either analytic or conclusively verifiable or at least confirmable by observation and experiment and that metaphysical theories are therefore strictly meaningless —called also logical empiricism."
    -- web search: Logical positivism

  • Monophyly: In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics, which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. More at Wikipedia

  • Non-adaptive order: The Biology of the Baroque

  • NRAO Radio Astronomy Glossary

  • Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify.

  • Phenotypic Plasticity: "Some organisms can change their appearance, physiology, and development in response to changes in the environment. This is called phenotypic plasticity."

  • Parsec: A parsec is the distance at which you would observe exactly 1 arcsecond of parallax as the Earth goes around the Sun.

  • Physics: Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED)): "Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) Quantum electrodynamics, commonly referred to as QED, is a quantum field theory of the electromagnetic force.Taking the example of the force between two electrons, the classical theory of electromagnetism would describe it as arising from the electric field produced by each electron at the position of the other."
    -- hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
    See also:
  • Web search: quantum electrodynamics (QED)

  • Physics: Stochastic ElectroDynamics (SED): "Stochastic electrodynamics's wiki: Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) an extension of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, with the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) playing a central role as the guiding pilot-wave. The theory is a deterministic nonlocal hidden-variable theory."
    -- everipedia.org
    See also:
  • Web search: Stochastic electrodynamics (SED)
  • Crisis In Physics
  • Crank Astronomer, W.T."Tom" Bridgman on Setterfield, SED (Stochastic Electrodynamics), and NASA

  • Polyphyly: A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor. The term is often applied to groups that share characteristics that appear to be similar but have not been inherited from common ancestors; these characteristics are known as homoplasies, and the development and phenomenon of homoplasies is known as convergent evolution. The arrangement of the members of a polyphyletic group is called a polyphyly. More at Wikipedia

  • Riemannian geometry:
    "Riemannian geometry, also called elliptic geometry, one of the non-Euclidean geometries that completely rejects the validity of Euclid’s fifth postulate and modifies his second postulate. Simply stated, Euclid’s fifth postulate is: through a point not on a given line there is only one line parallel to the given line. In Riemannian geometry, there are no lines parallel to the given line. Euclid’s second postulate is: a straight line of finite length can be extended continuously without bounds. In Riemannian geometry, a straight line of finite length can be extended continuously without bounds, but all straight lines are of the same length. The tenets of Riemannian geometry, however, admit the other three Euclidean postulates (compare hyperbolic geometry).

    "Although some of the theorems of Riemannian geometry are identical to those of Euclidean, most differ. In Euclidean geometry, for example, two parallel lines are taken to be everywhere equidistant. In elliptic geometry, parallel lines do not exist. In Euclidean, the sum of the angles in a triangle is two right angles; in elliptic, the sum is greater than two right angles. In Euclidean, polygons of differing areas can be similar; in elliptic, similar polygons of differing areas do not exist." - Encyclopedia Britannica

  • Synthetic life: re-designing the cell chromosomes
    • PAPER: Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome / Science 02 Jul 2010: Vol. 329, Issue 5987, pp. 52-56, DOI: 10.1126/science.1190719
    • VIDEO: Craig Venter: How to make a new life form / The Guardian, 5/20/2010
    • Craig Venter creates synthetic life form / The Guardian, 20 May 2010
      "Craig Venter and his team have built the genome of a bacterium from scratch and incorporated it into a cell to make what they call the world's first synthetic life form"
    • Craig Venter, bio / Wikipedia
      "A completely synthetic genome was produced by Craig Venter, and his team introduced it to genomically-emptied bacterial host cells.[77] The host cells were able to grow and replicate.[78][79]"


    • Was life really created in a test tube? And does it disprove biblical creation? / Creation.com, 25 May 2010
      DNA sequence is software

      In an online video, Dr Venter explains his work:
      "It's pretty stunning when you just replace the DNA software in the cell, and the cell instantly starts reading that new software, starts making a whole different set of proteins, and within a short while, all the characteristics of the first species disappear, and a new species emerges from this software that controls that cell going forward. …

      "Life is basically the result of an information process, a software process. Our genetic code is our software, and our cells are dynamically, constantly reading our genetic code, making new proteins, and the proteins make the other cellular components. …

      "This is now the first time where we've started with information in the computer, built that software molecule, now over a million letters of genetic code, put that into a recipient cell, and have this process start where that information converted that cell into a new species." http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2010/may/20/craig-venter-new-life-form

      Evolutionist Paul Davies:

      "DNA is not a special life-giving molecule, but a genetic databank that transmits its information using a mathematical code. Most of the workings of the cell are best described, not in terms of material stuff-hardware-but as information, or software. Trying to make life by mixing chemicals in a test tube is like soldering switches and wires in an attempt to produce Windows 98. It won't work because it addresses the problem at the wrong conceptual level."

      "But this leaves Davies with a problem in explaining how life could have arisen from non-living chemicals:

      "How did nature fabricate the world's first digital information processor-the original living cell-from the blind chaos of blundering molecules? How did molecular hardware get to write its own software?"

      Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), former chairman of physical chemistry at the University of Manchester (UK):
      "As the arrangement of a printed page is extraneous to the chemistry of the printed page, so is the base sequence in a DNA molecule extraneous to the chemical forces at work in the DNA molecule. It is this physical indeterminacy of the sequence that produces the improbability of any particular sequence and thereby enables it to have a meaning-a meaning that has a mathematically determinate information content."3

      "In the abstract of his paper Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome published in the journal Science, [Venter] and his co-workers state:

      "We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08-Mbp Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a Mycoplasma capricolum recipient cell to create new Mycoplasma mycoides cells that are controlled only by the synthetic chromosome. The only DNA in the cells is the designed synthetic DNA sequence, including 'watermark' sequences and other designed gene deletions and polymorphisms, and mutations acquired during the building process. The new cells have expected phenotypic properties and are capable of continuous self-replication."

      "That is, he decoded the sequence of one organism, then used this information to synthesize DNA in that sequence. He made some modifications: adding four "watermarks" and extra coding for a substance that would turn blue in the presence of certain drugs. Then it was implanted it into a bacterium of the same genus.

      "there is a huge problem in ordinary chemistry in getting any large DNA molecule. Venter explained that ordinary chemical synthesizers make DNA only 50-80 letters long, so it was quite a jump to making something exceeding a million letters. Furthermore, these synthesizers use very complicated starting materials, deoxyribonucleotides, which are a long way from being produced in a primordial soup …"

      "Venter's work was an amazing scientific achievement, the result of years of research and much ingenuity. There were at least three problems he had to solve to make his synthetic life; these are listed here, alongside his solutions:
      • Operating machinery: using an already existing cell
      • Software: obtaining the information of an already existing cell, modifying it, and synthesizing DNA with this information.
      • Joining up this molecule despite the chemical and physical difficulties. Venter used proteins from yeast to help.

    • Scientists Prove Again that Life is the Result of Intelligent Design | Jewish & Israel News Algemeiner.com
    • 'Creating' Life in the Lab
    • Have Scientists Created a New Life-form in the Lab?
    • Have Scientists Created a Synthetic Cell?
      "They sequenced every base, transferring the data to a computer. They then synthesized new DNA to precisely match the sequence. Due to limitations of the DNA synthesizer, they had to start by manufacturing over 1,000 individual lengths, each with approximately 1,080 base pairs. This included extra DNA required for splicing the lengths together. The synthesized genome was then transferred to yeast, which can accurately copy long sequences of DNA and have enzymes that maintain DNA integrity. Finally, the researchers transferred the laboratory-synthesized, yeast-cloned DNA into a living bacterium that had its own DNA removed. The resulting cells grew and multiplied successfully in the lab."
    • Semi-Homemade Life / by Dr. Georgia Purdom on September 5, 2007
    • Scientists reconstruct the genome of a moa, a bird extinct for 700 years